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Chapter 11

Chapter 11- detailed textbook notes for final exam

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Mark Schmuckler

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Chapter 11 The FamilyThe FAMILY SYSTEMParents do indeed influence and direct their children but their children also influence them and play an active role in their own socialization BronfenbrennerMorris2006Socialization the process by which parents and others ensure that a childs standards of behaviour attitudes skills and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in societyThe Ecological Systems Perspective2 principles of the interdependent system the realization by psychotherapists that change the behaviour of the child and Bronfenbrenners ecological theoryBoth concern the relationship btw the child and the many systems within which he develops as well as relationships among these systemsA system is complex and organized that it has an ongoing identity of its own and that it maintains certain stability over timeit must also be capable of morphogenesisadapting between systems and equifinalitydeveloping similarities with other systems12 other principles that govern a system interdependency explaining why function of the family system is not smooth Homeostasisthe families ways to attain equilibrium in their functioning and to become resistant to forces that might alter their balance distress aggressive children routine changes etc Another one is boundarieshow families vary in how permeable or vulnerable they are to outside influencesie a teenage starts university an adult about to get married etc The Marital system One study by Ehrenberg et al found that the amount of shared parenting engaged in by couples predicted their marital satisfaction parental competence and closeness to their children although the actual division of child care tasks were unrelated to these dimensions Couples who share chores and child care increase their chances of witnessing developmental milestones such as first wordThe effect of marital conflict on children can take 2 diff pathways direct and indirect Children may be indirectly affected by their marital difficulties cause parents to change their child rearing practices and interact diff with children Children who are directly affected is when they witness the arguments or fightsBoys tend to display more externalizing or aggressive and anti social behaviour and girls show more internalizing behavioursshy and withdrawn when there are marital difficulties The Parentchild system Parents rely on several learning principles above For eg reinforcement when they explain an acceptable behaviour and then praise or discipline their children according to whether they conform to or violate these rules Parents also manage aspects of their childrens environment that will influence their social development Emotionality is crucial in socialization process when a parent is warm and loving the child will likely maintain parents approvalbaumrind et alPhysical punishment is more effective in the hands of warm parents probably because the child wants to conform to his parents standards
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