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B20 Ch 6 notes

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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20ch6Early emotional developmentemotionssubjective reactions to something in the environment that are usually experienced cognitively as either pleasant or unpleasant that are generally accompanied by physiological changes and that are often expressed in some form of visible behaviorWhy are emotions important emotions are a means of letting others know how we fell and in communicating our emotions and learning to interpret other peoples emotions we achieve social success emotions are linked to childrens mental and physical health as well physical health suffers too when emotional development goes wrong Primary and secondary emotionsprimary emotions fear joy disgust surprise sadness and interest occur early in life do not need self reflection secondary emotion pride jealousy shame guilt and embarrassment later in dev and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other individual reactions to our actionsPerspectives on emotional development a childs emotional dev is influenced by her genetic inheritance the conditions of the enviro into which she is born her interactions with fam members and later with peersThe genetic maturational perspective emotions are best seen as products of biological factors individual differences in temperament play a central role in how intensely children react to emotionally arousing situations and in how well they are able to regulate their reactions identical twisn show greater similarity than fraternal twins in both the earliest times of their first smiles and the amount of smiling in which each engages babies begin to smile about 6weeks after they are born certain amount of physical maturation and social stimulation must occur before a baby is ready to start smilingLearning perspective the frequency with which children smile and laugh seems to vary with the nature of the environment in which they are raisedparents can help their children learn to manage and understand their emotions by rewarding only certain emotional displays parents who respond with enthusiasm to their smiling infant will tend to encourage him to smile more children may learn other fears through operant conditioning when one of their own behaviors is followed by a consequence they can learn other fear by simply observing others ex a child may watch her mother react fearfully to a bee and later imitate her mothers reactionThe functionalist perspective emotions serve to help us achieve our goals and adapt to our environment the role of emotions in establishing and maintaining social relationships it incorporates many features of the learning perspective the purpose of emotion is to help us achieve our goals goals arouse emotions ex the emotion of fear may lead us to flee the dangerous situation enabling us to achieve the goal of self preservationit also recognizes the social nature of emotions we use info provided by others emotional signals to guide our own behavior ex trying to make friends someone smiles at you then you will react and talk to them memories of the past serve as a guide in shaping how the child will respond emotionally to a situation emotions regulate childrens behavior and enhance their adaptation to their environment ex people always negative to you then you wont try as hard to make friends different theories are useful in answering different questionsThe development of emotional expressionshow researchers can distinguish among infants expressions of all emotions is by means of coding systems that pay careful attention to change in a babys facial expression and bodily movements systems assign finely differentiated scores to different parts of the face and to specific infant movement patterns coding systems for infant expressions now in use the Maximally Discriminative facial movement MAX coding system Development of primary emotions Positive primary emotions smiling and laughter reflex or simple smiles are usually spontaneous and appear to depend on the infants internal state and they serve a good purpose smiles may have adaptive value for the baby ensuring critical caregiver attention and stimulation smiles becomes means of communication infants smiles almost exclusively at the human face smiling behavior follows a similar pattern babies smile at the eyes then the mouth then the entire face and facial expression 3 months start to smile more selectively at familiar faces functionalist perspective infant smiles become more discriminating as babies develop 10 month old generally reserved special kind of smile for their mothers baby display genuine smiles for their mothersthere are individual differences in the amount of smiling a baby does some of these differences have to do with social responsiveness of the babys enviro gender is related to babys smiling girls generally show more spontaneous smiles than boys teenage girls smile more than teen boys Girls may be genetically better prepared for social
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