Textbook Notes (368,408)
Canada (161,869)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 1Introduction Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canadas Mental Health SystemBretts ChildhoodHad difficulty in maintaining an erection when making love to his wifeHad difficulty maintain an erection when making love to his wifeHe had a difficult childhood his mother passed away when he was 6 and his father was a heavy drinker diagnoses with manic depressive psychosis and could only afford to live in rundown neighbourhoods thus he lived with his aunt for many weeksHe managed to get to university with a loan but then experienced bouts of sadness followed by manic elation like his fatherHe was extremely nervous and self consciousHe became a police but his mood swings still bothered himIn his thirties him and his wife wanted a family but he was unable to achieve an erectionHe also became suspicious of his wife for she was becoming more beautiful than everOne day she came home late he was already drunk he accused her of infidelity she taunted him of his inability to make love and he left and now is seeking professional helpPsychopathology the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal behaviour thoughts and feelingsAnother challenge of abnormal psychology is the need to remain objectiveWhat is Abnormal BehaviourThere is no single one definition that is adequateThe best definition of abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics of statistical frequency violation of norms personal distress disability or dysfunction and unexpectednessThe following 5 characteristics provide a framework for defining abnormalityStatistical InfrequencyOne aspect of abnormal behaviour is that its infrequentThe normal curve or bell shaped curve places the majority o people in the middle in any characteristic very few people are at either end or extremesWhen someone is considered normal it is that he or she doesnt deviate much from the averageThis statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardationoWhen an individuals IQ is below 70 they are considered subnormal and considered mentally retardedBut not all behaviours that are infrequent are abnormal ex great athletic abilityViolation of NormsWhether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it helps categorize it as abnormalThere are exceptions to this also criminals and prostitutes break social norms but are not considered abnormal or need to e studied within the domain of abnormal psychologyCultural diversity can affect how people view social normsoWhat is normal in one culture may be abnormal in anotherPersonal DistressIt can be considered abnormal if it creates personal suffering great distress and torments the personAgain there are exceptions thoughoPsychopath treat others coldheartedly and may continuously violate the law without experiencing any guilt remorse or anxiety whatsoeveroAlso not all forms of distress hunger or pain of childbirth belong in this fieldDisability or dysfunctionAnother component of abnormality is disability or dysfunction Disability impairment in some important area of life because of anabnormality oEx Work or personal relationshipsEx Bretts marital relationshipSubstance abuse also fits as well as phobia that can produce distress and disabilityDisability applies to some but all disordersoTransvestism cross dressing for sexual pleasureUnexpectednessDistress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressorsEx Hunger is an expected response to not eating Brett was experiencing some life stress but many people do so without developing psychological problemsThe Mental Health ProfessionsClinical psychologistoRequires PhD or PsyD degree 47 years of graduate studyIn Canada depending upon regulatory statues a psychologist may have either a doctoral or a masterslevel degreeIn some jurisdictions psychologist is reserved for doctorallevel registrants where as masters level registrants are referred to as psychological associatesthere is no consensus among the provinces on the minimal academic requirements the required length of supervised practise and the timing of such practiselater there was an agreement on internal trade AIT that said in order to become registered as a psychologist 5 competency areas must beointerpersonal relationshipsoassessment and evaluationointervention and consultation
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