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Canada (161,820)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 2Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural FactorsParadigm a set of basic assumptions a general perspective that defines who to conceptualize and study a subject how to gather and interpret relevant data even how to think about a particular subjectThe Role of ParadigmsParadigm a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiryit injects usual biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the interpretation of factsmeaning or importance given to a data may depend on a paradigmThe Biological Paradigmit is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis mental disorders are caused by irregular biological processesaka Medical model or disease modelthe germ theory was once very pervasive but then it was found that it cannot account for all diseases ex Diabetesmedical illness are common in that there is some biological process that is disrupted or not functioning normallyththis paradigm was dominant from late 1800s to the middle 20 centuryEx Halls removed ovarian cysts or the whole ovary to treat melancholia mania and delusionsContemporary approaches to the biological paradigmThere are research supporting heredity having to increase the risk of certain mental disorders and may result from a chemical imbalance within the brain depression defect within the autonomic nervous system anxiety disorder and impairment in brain structure dementiaBehaviour GeneticsBehaviour genetics study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable part to differences in genetic make upGenotype his or her unobservable genetic constitution fixed at birthPhenotype totality of his or her observable behavioural characteristics changes over timea product of interaction between genotype and environmentVarious clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not genotypeDiathesis a predisposition may be inherited but not the disorder itselfBehaviour genetics relied on 4 basic methods for whether psychopathology is inheritedoComparison of members of a familyPeople who share 50 of genes with a given individual are called firstdegree relativesNephews and nieces share 25 of an uncles and is called seconddegree relativesIndex casesprobands are the individuals under investigationoComparison of pairs of twinsConcordant when twins are similar diagnostically are said to be thisWhen MZ concordance rate is higher than DZ rate the characteristic being studied is said to be heritableBut sometimes its not heritable but the rearing practises of parentsEqual environment assumption the environmental factors that are partial cause of concordance are equally influential for MZ and DZ pairsSometimes results maybe similar because of the environment rather than biologyoInvestigation of adopteesEliminates the effect of being raised by disordered parentsoLinkage analysisTries to specify the particular gene involved Collect diagnostic information and blood samples from affected individuals and relatives and use the blood sample to study the inheritance patter of characteristics who genetics are fully understoodBiochemistry in the Nervous SystemEach neuron has 4 major parts cell body dendrites axons and terminal buttonsIt is stimulated through the cell body or dendrites the nerve impulse electrical potential travels down the axon into the terminal endingsThe gap between the sending axon and receiving neuron there is a synapseThe terminal buttons contain synaptic vesicles filled with NT a chemical substance that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapseThe nerve impulse causes the synaptic vesicles to release molecules of their transmitter substances and these molecules flood the synapse and diffuse toward the postsynaptic neuronPostsynaptic cell contain proteins receptor sites sometimes excitatory or inhibitoryThen the last step is the presynaptic neuron is returned to normal stateSometimes what remains is broken by enzymes or pumped back by reuptakeKey NeurotransmittersoNorepinephrine from the peripheral sympathetic NS involved in produced high arousal states must be involved in anxiety disordersoSerotonin brain NTs involved in depressionoDopamine brain NT involved in schizophreniaoGammaaminobutyric acid GABA inhibits some nerve impulses involved in anxiety disordersThis theory proposes that a given disorder is caused by too much or too little of a NTToo much or too little of a particular transmitter could result from an error in these metabolic pathwaysIt may also be a problem in the reuptake process or the number of receptors
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