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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 10 Mood DisordersGeneral Characteristic of Mood DisordersMood disorder involve disabling disturbances in emotion from sadness of depression to the elation and irritability of maniaDepressionSigns and SymptomsDepression emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guiltSymptoms withdrawal from others and loss of sleep appetite sexual desire and interest and pleasure in usual activitiesAssociated with other problemspanic attacks substance abuse sexual dysfunction and personality disorderThey may speak slowly after long pauses using few words monotonous voiceThey prefer to sit alone and remain silentMay neglect personal hygiene and appearance and make numerous complains of somatic symptoms with no apparent physical baseVary across the lifespan symptomsChildrenresults in somatic complaints headaches or stomach achesOlder adultsdistractibility and complaints of memory lossSome cross cultural variationbecause of difference in cultural standards of acceptable behaviourPsychologizers people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depressiono15 of patients in CanadaoMore non western cultures express physical symptoms rather than psychologicalAverage untreated depression may stretch for 35 months or longer13 suffer from chronic depressionManiaSigns and SymptomsMania an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability hyperactivity talkativeness flight of ideas distractibility and impractical grandiose plansUsually its a cycle between depression and mania Mania alone is rareLast from several days to several monthsSymptomsloud stream of remarks full of puns jokesrhyming and interjections about objects and happening that have attracted the speakers attentionTheir speech is difficult to interruptUsually comes on suddenlyChapter 10 Mood DisordersPage 12Formal Diagnostic Listing of Mood Disorders2 major mood disordersmajor depression unipolar depressionbipolar depressionDiagnosis of DepressionMajor depressionunipolar depressionRequires the presence of 5 of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks but depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure must be one of the 5 symptomsoSad depressed mood most of the day nearly every dayoLoss of interests in usual activitiesoInsomnia or too much sleepoShift in activity levelbecoming either lethargic psychomotor retardation or agitatedoPoor appetite and weight loss of increased appetite and weight gainoLoss of energyfatigueoNegative selfconcept self reproach and self blame worthlessness and guiltoDifficulty concentrating oRecurrent thoughts of death or suicidePrevalence of 52171American studies46 in Canadian studies but higher ones were also found2x more common in womenMore often in younger ages than older and in low socio economic classFemales are more likely to engage in ruminative coping want to understand the meaning of why they feel that way and males tend to do something that diverts their attentionMale and females differ in the stressors they experience ex Single mothers vs MarriedFemales are more likely than males to be exposed to various forms of victimizationDepression is a recurrent disorder 80 experience another episode lasting 35 months12 of the cases become chronicDiagnosis of Bipolar DisorderBipolar disorder involves episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depressionRequires the presence of elevated or irritable mood plus 3 additional symptoms 4 if the mood is irritableThe symptoms must be sever enough to impair social and occupational functioningoIncreased activity level at work socially or sexuallyoUnusual talkativeness rapid speechChapter 10 Mood DisordersPage 12
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