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PSYB32 Ch 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Ch 2Paradigm a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry a general perspective that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject how to gather and interpret relevant data eve how to think about a particular subject The conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works1 Biological paradigm medicaldisease model of abnormal bhvr is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis mental disorders are caused by unusual biological processes Physical illness as the basis for deviant bhvrEg 1900 gynaecological procedures used to treat insanity in BC women Hall said insanity exists when the Ego is dominated by the influence f a diseased periphery nerve tractthe removal of a small part of the physical disease might result in the restoration of the balance of power to such an organism and diminish if not remove the abnormal psychic phenomena thus removal of ovaries was the treatment for melancholia mania and delusions Female ovummale spermzygotefertilized egg Each cell consists of 46 chromosomes 23 pairs Each chromosome is made up of thousands of genes the carriers of the genetic information DNA passed f parents to childBehaviour genetics the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeupGenotype ones unobservable genetic constitution fixedbirth but static Genes controlling various features of dvlpt switch off and onspecific times to control aspects of physical envt Phenotype the totality of ones observable behavioural characteristics such as level of anxiety Changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction btwn the genotype and the envt Whether genotypes will eventually engender the phenotypic bhvr disorder will depend on envt and experience A predisposition aka a diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itself The study of bhvr genetics uses these methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited comparison of family members comparisons btwn pairs of twins the investigation of adoptees and linkage analysisFamily method used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family bc the average number of genes shared by 2 blood relatives is known Siblings as well as parents and their children are identical in 50 of their genetic background Ppl who share 50 of their genes w a given person are called firstdegree relatives of that person Relatives not as closely related share fewer genes nephews and nieces share 25 of the genetic makeup of an uncles and are called seconddegree relatives Index casesprobands the starting point in such investigations is the collection of a sample of individuals who bear the diagnosis in questionTwin method both monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins are compared they begin w diagnosed cases and then search for the presence of the disorder in the other twin MZidentical twins dvlp f a single fertilized egg and are genetically the same always same sexDZfraternal twins dvlp f separate eggs and are on average only 50 genetically alike either same or opposite sexWhen the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to concordantto the extent that a predisposition that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited concordance for the disorder should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs then in DZ pairs when the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate the characteristic being studied is heritableThe ability to offer a genetic interpretation of data f twin studies is based on the equal environment assumption the environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ pairs and DZ pairsthis doesnt mean that that the environments of MZ and DZ twins are equal in all respects but that theyd have equivalent numbers of stressful life events Factors that also complicate the results of twin research are the violation of the equal environment assumption the participants sex and their age when the assessment took place Adoptees method studies children who were adopted and reared apart f their parents w abnormal disordersEg If a high frequency of panic disorder were found in children reared apart f parents who also suffer f panic disordera genetic predisposition figures in the disorderMolecular genetics goes beyond attempts to show whether a disorder has a genetic component it tries to specify the particular genegenes involved and the precise functions of these genes Allele any one of several DNA codings that occupy the same position or location on a chromosome a persons genotype is ones set of alleles Genetic polymorphism variability among members of the species differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in very diff forms among members in the same habitat it entails mutations in a chromosome that can be induced or naturally occurring Linkage analysis a method in molecular genetics that is used to study pplit typically studies families in which a disorder s heavily concentrated by collecting diagnostic info and blood samples f affected subjects and their relatives and use the blood samples to study the inheritance pattern of characteristics whose genetics are fully understood referred to as genetic markersLink found btwn OCD and the GABA type B receptor 1 Geneenvironment interaction the notion that a disorder or related symptoms are the joint product of a genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences Neuron has 1 the cell body 2 several dendrites short and thick extensions 3 one or more axons of varying lengths 4 terminal buttons on the end branches of the axon When a neuron is stimulatedits cell body or through its dendrites a nerve impulse which is a change in the electric potential f the cell travels down the axon o terminal endings btwn the terminal endings of the sending axon and the cell membrane of the receiving neuron there s small gaps called the synapse
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