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PSYB32 Ch 12

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Ch 12 Substance Related DisordersSubstance dependence DSM states the presence ofleast 3 of the followingThe person dvlps tolerance indicated by either a larger doses of the substance being needed to produce the desired effect or b the effects of the drug becoming less if the usual amount is takenWithdrawal symptomsnegative physical and psychological effects dvlp when the person stops taking the substance or reduce the amount The person uses more of the substance or uses it for longer time than intendedThe person recognizes excessive of the substance they may have tried to reduce usage but has been unable to Much of the persons time is spent in efforts to obtain the substance or recover f its effectsSubstance use continues despite psychologicalphysical problems causedexacerbated by the drugs The person gives up or cuts back participation in many activities work socialization bc of the substance Substance abuse DSM states that one of the following as a result of recurrent use of the drugFailure to fulfill major obligation absences f workExposure to physical dangers operating machinery while drunkLegal problem disorderly conductPersistent social or interpersonal problems arguments w spouseDTs delirium tremens an example of substance withdrawalalcohol withdrawal delirium When the level of alcohol in the blood drops suddenlyThe person becomes delirious as well as tremulous and suffers visual hallucinations Feverish and disoriented Polydrug polysubstance abuse abusing more than one druga time The effects of some drugs while taken together are synergistic the effects of each combine to produce an especially strong reactionShortterm effectsAlcohol is a drug it had a biphasic effectthe initial effect of alcohol is stimulating the drinker is experiences an expansive feeling of sociability and well0being as the blood alcohol level risesbut after the blood alcohol level peaks and begins to decline alcohol acts as a depressant that may lead to negative emotions Alcohol stimulates GABA receptors while are responsible for reducing tension Increased levels of serotonin and dopamine and may be the source of its ability to produce pleasurable effects Alcohol also inhibits glutamate receptors which may cause cognitive effects like memory loss and slurred speechLongterm effectsAlcohol contributes to malnutrition which impairs the digestion of food and absorption of vitaminsOlder chronic alcohol abusers demo a deficiency of Bcomplex vitamins that can cause amnestic syndrome a severe loss of memory for recent and longpast events memory gaps are filled in w reports of imaginary improbable events
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