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PSYB32 Ch 14

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Ch 14 SexualGender Identity DisordersSexual and gender identity disorders human sexual thoughts feelings and actions that are generally regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional Gender identity disorder GIDtransexualism ppl who feel deep within themselves usually f childhood that they are of the opposite sexthey have a dislike to samesex clothing and activities A man can lookhimself in the mirror see the body of a biological man yet personally experience that body as belonging to a womanhe may try to have his body surgically altered to bring it in line w his sexual identity Gender identity disorder not otherwise specified GIDNOS the person has symptoms that meet much of the GID description but there are some unique features that dont fit the criteria for instance they border on a fetish and transvestite bhvr where they often dress in the clothing of the opposite sex but dont identify themselves as the opposite sex Factors associated w reason to seek clinical assessment 1 a belief that the bhvr was no longer a phase that the child would grow f 2 a threshold violation a boy wanting to crossdressnursery school not justhome anymore 3 a belief that the kid was experience intense distress about their biological sex and 4 concerns about rejection by peers A male w GID experiences his sexual interest in men as a conventional heterosexual preference since he considers himself a woman GID in childhood is linked w separation anxiety disorder Some evidence indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormonesEg participants were unable to produce a hormone that shapes the penis and scrotum in males during fetal dvlptmentthey were born w very small penises and scrotums that looked like labial folds 23 of them were raised as girls but when they reached puberty and testosterone levels increased their penis enlarged and the testicles descended into the scrotum1718 participants dvlpd a male gender identityJohnJoan Thiessen showed a strong biological underpinning for gender identity despite not having a penis being encouraged to behave in a feminine way and developing breasts due to estrogen John never dvlpd a female gender identity Mothers consumption of prenatal sex hormones apparently gave birth to children w higher than usual levels of crossgender interests and bhvr In terms of environmental influences female family and relatives seem to have encouraged crossdressing boys since they appeared to be so cuteMale patients w GID report having had a distant relsh w their fathers females often report a history of physicalsexual abuseTherapiesA GID patient that entails body alterations undergoes 612 months of psychotherapy for the anxiety and depression theyve been experiencing and for a maletofemale transsexualcosmetic surgery includes removal of facial hair surgery to reduce Adams apple and intake of hormones to dvlp breastsOne step further is sexreassignment surgery an operation where the existing genitalia are altered to make them more like those of the opposite sex Alterations of gender identity that is psychologically deepseated is another viable option the treatment involves shaping specific bhvrsmannerism interpersonal bhvr how to talk to young women for a male w GID cognitive componentsaversion therapy to reduce the attractiveness of men pairing slides of women w slides of men to transfer sexual arousal f men to women by classical conditioning Paraphilias a group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in natureDSM states that fantasiesurgesbhvrs must be recurrent and lastleast 6 months in length and cause distress or impairment
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