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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 2

ch.2 detailed textbook notes

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Mark Schmuckler

Chapter 2Heredity and the EnvironmentThe concepts of genotype and phenotype provide a framework for exploring the interactions of genes and environmentsGenotypes the particular set of genes that a person inherits from her parentsPhenotypes created by the interaction of a persons genotype or genetic makeup wit the environment the visible expression of the persons particular physical and behavioral characteristics The Process of Genetic TransmissionZygote results from the union of male and female gametes or reproductive cells which carry genetic informationOvum the female germ cell eggSperm male germ cellChromosome and Genes o Chromosomes threadlike structures located in the central portion of the call that carry genetic information to help direct development o Each chromosome is homologous the 23 pairs copy in every cell except the for the reproductive cells o In reproductive cells there are only 23 chromosomes not pairs because the sperm and egg unite o Meiosis 23 chromosome pairs are halved only 23 chromosomes o Crossing over process by which equivalent sections of homologous chromosomes switch places randomly shuffling the genetic information each carries o Mitosis process n which a body call divides in two first duplication its chromosomes so that new daughter cells contain the usual 46 chromosomesoccurs in autosomesGenes DNA and Proteins o DNA ladderlike molecule that stores genetic information in cells and transmits it during reproductionmade up of nucleotides o Nucleotides compound containing a nitrogen base a simple sugar and a protein o Gene portion of DNA that is located at a particular site on a chromosome and that codes for the production of certain kinds of proteins Genetic Influence on DevelopmentGregor Mendel model o Principle of segregationeach inherited trait comes from ones parents as a separate unit flower color stem height o Principle of independent assortmentinheritance of various traits occurs independently of one another inheritance of flower color has nothing do with stem heightTwo basic concepts
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