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Chapter 2

CH.2 Heredity.docx

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Mark Phortney

Twinkle Arora PSYB20 CHAPTER 2 HEREDITY AND THE ENVIORNMENTGenotypethe particular set of genes that a person inherits from her parents With the exception of identical twins no two people have exactly the same genotypes Genotype interacts with the environment to produce the phenotype Phenotypecreated by the interaction of a persons genotype or genetic makeup with the environment the visibleexpression of the persons particular physical and behavioural characterises Examples of the phenotypeintellectual skills motor abilities and personality traits Genetic transmissionin a females oviductthe sperm and the eggmale and female gametes reproductive cells unite to create a zygote Ovumthe female germ cell or egg Spermthe male germ cellthe smallest of all human cells is the shape of a head After 9 monthsbaby7 to 8 pounds and are about 50 cm long Chromosomes and genes are located inside the nucleus or centre of the cell 23 chromosome pairs46 in total Chromosomesthreadlike structures that carry genetic information to help direct environment Each pair is homologoussimilar in shape and function to one of the chromosomes These chromosomes are passed on to every cell in a persons body with the exception of the reproductive cells Meiosis reproductive cells divide to produce new germ cells with half the normal complement of chromosomesthus male and female germ cells sperm and egg each contain only 23 chromosomes so that when they unite the new organism they form will have 46 chromosomes half from each parent Crossing overthe process by which equivalent sections of homologous chromosomes switch places randomly shuffling the genetic information each carriesMitosisthe process in which a body cell divides in two first duplicating its chromosomes so that the new daughter cells contain the usual 46 chromosomes Autosomesthe 22 paired nonsex chromosomes1
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