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Psychology (9,573)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 11

CH.11 Family.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Phortney

CH11 The family Parents play a crucial role in socialization Socializationthe process by which parents and others ensure that a childs standards of behaviour attitudes skills and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in society Socialization of gender begins at birthblue wrapboys and pink wrapgirlsThe family system is processes of mutual shapingthat is parents influence and direct their childrenbut their children also influence them and play an active role in their own socialization Families do not function in isolation they are influenced by the larger physical cultural social and historical setting and events around them Families are not staticthey change over time members of the family are constantly changing The family s viewed as an interdependent system that functions as a whole has 2 principle origins 1 To change the beh of a troubled child one usually must change the family system as well and 2 Bronfenbrebers ecological theory Dynamic systems theoryis a complex and organized system that it has an indenity of its own and although it maintains a certain stability over time it must be also capable of morphogenesis adapting to changes and a system that demonstrates equifinality Interdependencyexplains why the functioning of a family is not always smoothbecauseeach family member and family subsystem Families tend to attain equilibrium or homeostasisIn their functioning and to become resistant to forces that might alter this balance Families have boundaries that vary in how permeable or vulnerable they are outside influencesallow members to maintain satisfying relationships both within and outside the family The marital system Both partners in a marriage committed agreements civil unions or cohabitation make up the marital systemWhen parents offer each other comfort and support they are more likely to provide the same for their children Study has shown that the amount of shared parenting engaged in couples predicted their marital satisfaction parental competence and closeness to children Conflict bw parents has a negative impact on both thechildren and parents reflecting insecure attachmentStudying school age children found that not only the level of conflict but also the way adult partners manage their conflict can have harmful effects on childrenThe effect of marital conflict on children can take two of one pathwaysdirect or indirect Children may be affected by such conflict indirectly when marital difficulties cause parents to change their childrearing practices Research shows that parents in conflicting marriages had a poor parenting style cold unresponsive and angry Children can also be effected directly when they are actual witnesses to arguments and fights
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