Textbook Notes (369,099)
Canada (162,378)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 3

B32.Chapter 3.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 3During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries there was great inconsistency in the classification of abnormal behavioura wide diversity of classification Current Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association DSMIVDSMIVTRMental Disorder a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress ie a painful symptom or disability ie impairment in one or more important areas of functioning or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death pain disability or an important loss of freedomA number of conditions are excluded from consideration In addition this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event for example the death of a loved one Whatever its original cause it must currently be considered a manifestation of a behavioural psychological or biological dysfunction in the individualFive Dimensions of ClassificationDifferences between the third and subsequent versions Multiaxial Classificationeach individual is rated on five separate dimensions or axes 1 Axis I All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardationMental health professional consulted ie depression or anxiety disorder 2 Axis II Personality disorders and mental retardationDependent personality disorder 3 Axis III General medical conditionsRelevant to the mental disorder in question ie heart patientdepressiondrug implications 4 Axis IV Psychosocial and environmental problemsie occupational problems economic problems interpersonal difficulties 5 Axis V Current level of functioningie social relationships occupational functioning and use of leisure timegive information about the need for treatmentAxis I and II compose the classification of abnormal behaviour I and II are separated to ensure that the presence of longterm disturbances is not overlookedThe remaining three axis are not actually needed to make a diagnosisthere to indicate that factors other than a persons symptoms should also be consideredDiagnostic Categories of axis I and II a Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy childhood or adolescenceChild with separation anxiety disorder has excessive anxiety about being away form home or parentsChildren with conduct disorder repeatedly violate social norms and rulesIndividuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have difficulty sustaining attention and are unable to control their activity when the situation calls for itIndividuals with mental retardation show subnormal intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive functioningThe pervasive developmental disorders include autistic disorder a severe condition in which the individual has problems in acquiring communication skills and deficits in relating to other peopleLearning disorders refer to delays in the acquisition of speech reading arithmetic and writing skills b Substancerelated disordersDiagnosed when the ingestion of some substancealcohol opiates cocaine amphetamines etchas changed behaviour enough to impair social or occupational functioning
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