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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 of textbook covered in week 2 of FALL 2010 semester

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 CHAPTER 2: CURRENT PARADIGMS & THE ROLD OF CULTURAL FACTORS SEPT. 20 . 2010 -a paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data and how to think about a particular subject -Thomas Kuhn: subjective factors as well as limitations in our perspective on the world enter scientific inquiry; his view is the notion of a paradigm: -the conceptual framework within which the scientist works; they specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they go about their investigation; a paradigm injects inevitable biases into the definitn and collectn of data and may also affect the interpretation of facts -the meaning or importance of data may depend on the extent on a paradigm -5 paradigms: biological, psychoanalytical, humanistic and existential, learning, and cognitive 1. BIOLOGIAL PARADIGM: of abnormal behave is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis; holds that mental disorders are caused by deviant biological processes; aka the medicaldisease model. -Louis Pasteur: relationship btwn bacteria & disease...germ theory of disease provided a new explanation for pathology; but this theory did not account for all diseases -e.g. Heart Disease depends on many other factors (genetic makeup, smoking, obesity etc.) -a biological process is disrupted or not fcning normally -Hall: use of gynaecological procedures to treat insanity in women from BC: insanity exists with the Ego is dominated and controlled by the influence from the diseased periphery nerve tractcenter...removal restores; removal of ovarian cystsentire ovaries was used as treatment for melancholia, mania, delusns -heredity probably predisposes a person to have an increased risk of developing schizo; depression may result from chemical imbalances win brain; anxiety disorders may stem from defect win the ANS that causes person to be too easily aroused; dementia can be traced to impairments in structures of the brain -psychopathology: view of some disturbance of some biological process; solution is found win the body; 3 main areas of research win this paradigm: behave genetics, molecular genetics, biochemistry -Behaviour Genetics: each chromosome made up of many genes = carriers of genetic info (DNA); behave genetics =study of indiv diffs in behave that are attributable in part to diffs in genetic makeup; -the total genetic makeup of an indiv, is called the genotype = unobservable genetic constitution; in contrast, phenotype = totality of observable, behavioural www.notesolution.comcharacteristics, such as level of anxiety; phenotype changes over time and seen as the product of the interactn btwn the genotype + environ. E.G. capacity for intelligence, depends on education -many syndromes are disorders of the phenotype, not genotype; can inherit the genotype for schizo, but whether these genotypes will eventually produce the phenotypic behave will depend on the environexperience -a predisposition, aka diathesis, may be inherited, but not the disorder itself -study of behave genetics has relied on 4 basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: 1. Family Method: used to study a genetic predisp among members of a fma bc the avg no. of genes shared by 2 blood relatives is known; -ppl who share 50% of their genes wa given indiv are called first-degree- relatives of that person; nephew genetic makeusnieces share 25% of an uncleaunt and called second-degree-relatives; if a predisp for a mental disorder can be inherited, a study of the fam should show a relationship btwn the no of shared genes and the prevalence of the disorder in relatives -sample indivs who bear the diagnosis in question, called index cases or probands; then relatives are studied to determine the freq wwhich the same diagnosis might be applied to them; -first-degree-relatives of index cases should have the disorder @a rate higher than that found in the general pop. E.g. 10% vs. 1% in pop 2. Twin Method: both MZ and DZ twins compared; when twins are similar diagnostically, they are concordant; -to the extent that a predisp for a mental disorder can be inherited, concordance for the disorder should be greater in MZ than in DZ; when MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate, the characteristic being studied is said to be heritable -ability to offer a genetic interpretation of data from twin studies relies on the equal environ assumption = environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ and DZ pairs (e.g. equally no. of stressful events) -study of PTSD, Stein et al. Showed 3 factors as biasing heritability estimates: violation of equal environments assumption, the ex of the participant, and hisher age when the assessment took place; when they controlled these factors, found that genetic and non-shared environmental factors contributed to symptoms of PTSD -these genetic factors may determine, in part, the extent to which a person i likely to experience PTS after an assaultive trauma -3. Adoptees Method: study children who were adopted and reared apart from their parents with abnormal disorders; eliminates being raised by disordered parents; support for the predisp of genetic disorders www.notesolution.com
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