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Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Summer

Description
PSYB64 (Lecture 10) 1 Chapter 14: emotion, reward, aggression and stress Emotion - two major components: - physical sensation (like rapid heartbeat) - & conscious, subjective experience or feeling (such as feeling scared) - demonstrate valence (generally positive or negative quality) The evolution of emotion - how emotions improved our ancestors chances of survival o contribution to general arousal o brain perceives a situation requiring action emotions provide the arousal need to trigger a response o arousal interacts with complexity of a task to predict performance o e.g. simple task (running away from predator) greater arousal: superior performance o e.g. complex task deficits in performance when arousal levels are too high - manage our approach and withdrawal behaviors relative to particular environmental stimuli o e.g. positive emotions eating: seeking food when hungry o e.g. negative emotions rotting food: avoidance for survival - enhance survival by helping us communicate o nonverbal communication consisting of facial expression and body language, provides an important source of social information. o e.g. expressions of fear help produce strong and immediate activity in brain areas associated with processing of fearful stimuli and preparation of responses such as flight Expression and Recognition of Emotion - human adults express and interpret emotions accurately usually. Controlling facial expression - pay most attention to face, particularly the eyes - human infants prefer gazing at faces rather than at other types of visual stimuli - Facial (VII) nerve o controls superficial muscles attached to the skin o responsible for facial expressions o 5 major branches o originate in 2 facial nuclei (either side of midline in pons) make it possible for emotional expression to vary in intensity from one half of the face to the other receive input from the primary motor cortex (located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe) for voluntary expression damaged unable to smile on command on the side of mouth contralateral to their damage. (e.g. volitional facial paresis) 1 PSYB64 (Lecture 10) 2 Chapter 14: emotion, reward, aggression and stress and from several subcortical motor areas spontaneous expression damaged e.g. parkinsons disease loses the ability to smile spontaneously but can smile on command. rds o upper 1/3 rds input from ipsi- and contralateral facial nerves o lower 1/3 contralateral facial nerves - & Trigeminal (V) nerve o controls deeper facial muscles attached to the bones of the head o responsible for chewing food and speaking Biological influences on emotional expression - major emotional expressions: o anger o sadness o happiness o fear o disgust o surprise o contempt o embarrassment - childrens capacities for emotional expression and recognition develop according to a fairly regular timeline and relatively little influence by experience o e.g. infants who are blind same progression in development of social smiling with those who are not blind o e.g. identical twins are more similar than dizygotic twins in which they begin to show fear of strangers o e.g. children raised in several diverse cultures showed similar age-related emotional responses to being separated from their mothers Emotional influences on Emotion - influences of culture and learning modify emotional expression o e.g. doctors were trained to withhold their emotions (ie disgust) to express to patients - presence of other people also influences the intensity of emotional expression o e.g. Japanese students more intense facial expressions in response to odors when in a group as opposed to when they are alone o VS American students reaction while viewing a film alone or in a group DIDNT vary - adulthood (compared to infants) have emerged differences in emotional expression Individual differences in Emotion - infants who are highly reactive to environmental stimuli are at greater risk for anxiety and mood disorders later in life o extremely low-reactive infants have a greater tendency toward antisocial behavior 2PSYB64 (Lecture 10) 3 Chapter 14: emotion, reward, aggression and stress o psychopaths incarcerated for murder indicated that these men responded much less than control participants to slides of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant situations - differences seen in amygdala (plays a crucial role in the interpretation of emotional stimuli) o major depressive disorder higher levels of activity in the amygdala than participants without any mood disorder o more negative mood ^ when shown pictures to elicit negative or neutral mood Can we spot a liar? - deliberately lying is difficult because it requires a great deal of short-term memory - slipped, uhms and uuhs, struggling to assemble a plausible lie - stiffening head and upper body - inappropriate smiling and laughing from nervousness from lying - lack of eye contact in USA (but not in other cultures) - nodding head less frequently and do not use hand gestures as much = when theyre telling the truth - Polygraph lie-detector tests used by law enforcement and employers o Reflect arousal o Unreliability
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