Axis I – Major Clinical Syndromes
Disorders usually first appearing in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Any deviation
from normal development, including mental retardation, autism, attention deficit
disorder with hyperactivity, excessive fears, speech problems, and highly aggressive
Delirium, dementia, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders. Disorders due to
deterioration of the brain because of aging disease (such as Alzheimer’s disease) or
ingestion or exposure to drugs or toxic substances (such as lead).
Psychoactive substance abuse disorders. Psychological, social, or physical problems
related to abuse of alcohol or other drugs, not including symptomless recreational use.
Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. A group of disorders marked by loss of
contact with reality, illogical thought, inappropriate displays of emotion, bizarre
perceptions and usually some form of hallucinations, or delusion.
Mood disorders. Disorder involving extreme deviations from normal mood, including
severe depression (major depression), excessive elation (mania), or alternation between
severe depression and excessive elation (bipolar disorder).
Anxiety disorder. Excessive fear of specific objects (phobia); repetitive, persistent
thoughts accompanied by ritualistic behaviour that reduces anxiety (obsessive
compulsive behaviour); panic attack; generalized and intense feelings of anxiety; and
feelings of dread caused by experiencing traumatic events such as natural disasters or
Somatoform disorder. Disorders involving pain, paralysis, or blindness for which no
physical cause can be found. Excessive concern for one’s health, as it typical in persons
with hypochondrias. (Priming: having recently seen a particular type of event makes it
easier for us to think of other examples of that event – ex. Many medical students afte