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Axis I.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Axis I – Major Clinical Syndromes  Disorders usually first appearing in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Any deviation from normal development, including mental retardation, autism, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, excessive fears, speech problems, and highly aggressive behaviour.  Delirium, dementia, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders. Disorders due to deterioration of the brain because of aging disease (such as Alzheimer’s disease) or ingestion or exposure to drugs or toxic substances (such as lead).  Psychoactive substance abuse disorders. Psychological, social, or physical problems related to abuse of alcohol or other drugs, not including symptomless recreational use.  Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. A group of disorders marked by loss of contact with reality, illogical thought, inappropriate displays of emotion, bizarre perceptions and usually some form of hallucinations, or delusion.  Mood disorders. Disorder involving extreme deviations from normal mood, including severe depression (major depression), excessive elation (mania), or alternation between severe depression and excessive elation (bipolar disorder).  Anxiety disorder. Excessive fear of specific objects (phobia); repetitive, persistent thoughts accompanied by ritualistic behaviour that reduces anxiety (obsessive compulsive behaviour); panic attack; generalized and intense feelings of anxiety; and feelings of dread caused by experiencing traumatic events such as natural disasters or combat.  Somatoform disorder. Disorders involving pain, paralysis, or blindness for which no physical cause can be found. Excessive concern for one’s health, as it typical in persons with hypochondrias. (Priming: having recently seen a particular type of event makes it easier for us to think of other examples of that event – ex. Many medical students afte
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