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Chapter 2

B32 - Chapter 2.doc

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 2 THE ROLE OF PARADIGMS Paradigm- the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works. A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry Paradigms specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation. They serve the vital function of indicating the rules to be followed A paradigm injects inevitable biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the interpretation of facts There are 5 paradigms: biological, psychoanalytical, humanistic and existential, learning and cognitive Current thinking about abnormal beh tends to be multi faceted and tend to integrate several paradigms THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM Biological paradigm- a broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused by some aberrant somatic process or defect. Its continuous of the somatoegnic hypothesis. The paradigm has often been referred to as the medical model or disease model The study of ab beh is linked historically to medicine For a time the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but it soon became apparent that this theory could not account for all diseases. Heart disease is one example. Medical illnesses can differ from one another in causes but they all share one characteristic: in al of them some bio process is disrupted or not functioning normally. Thats why its called the bio paradigm The bio paradigm was the dominant paradigm in Canada and elsewhere from the late 1800s until at least the middle of the 20 cen Hall; use of gynaecological procedures to treat insanity in women from B.C. he maintained that insanity exists when the Ego is dominated and controlled by the influence from a diseased periphery nerve tract or centre.. the removal of a small part of the physical disease might result in the restoration of the balance of power to such an organism and diminish if not remove the ab psychic phenomena. Removal of ovarian cysts or the entire ovaries was employed as treatment for melancholia, mania and delusions Contemporary approaches to the biological paradigm Hereditary probably predisposes a person to have increased risk of developing schizto, depression may result from chemical imbalances within the brain, anxiety disorders may stem from a defect within the automatic NS that causes a person to be too easily aroused and dementia can be traced to impairments in structures of the brain In each case the psychopathology is viewed as caused by the disturbance of some bio process Behaviour Genetics When the ovum, female reproductive cell is joined by the males spermatozoon, a zygote or fertilized egg is produced. It has 46 chromosomes, the # of characteristics of a human being Each chromosome is made up of thousands of genes, the carriers of the genetic information (DNA) passed from parents to child Gene- an ultramicroscopic area of the chromosome; the gene is the smallest physical unit of the DNA molecule that carries a piece of hereditary information Behavioural genetics is the study of individual differences in beh that are attributable in part to differentiate in genetic makeup. It studies the degree to which characteristics such as psychical resemblance or psychopathology are shared by family members cuz of shared genes The total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes is referred to as the genotype Genotype- an indiv unobservable genetic constitution; the totality of genes possessed by an indib Phenotype- the totality of the persons observable, beh characterises such as the level of anxiety. The genotype is fixed at birth but it should not be viewed as a static entity The phenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environment Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of the phenotype Its critical to recognize that various clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not of the genotype Only the genotypes for these disorders can be inherited. Whether the genotype will eventually will come out in the phenotypic beh disorder depends on environment and experience. A predisposition also known as a diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itself The study of genetics has relied on 4 basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: comparison of members of a family, comparison of pairs of twins, the investigation of adoptees, and linkage analysis The family method can be used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family cuz the average # of genes shared by two blood relative is known Parents and kids are identical in 50% of their genetic background. Ppl who share 50% of their genes with a given person are called first degree relatives of that person Nephews and nieces share 25% of the genetic makeup of an uncle and are called second degree relatives A sample of ppl who bear the diagnosis in question- these ppl are referred to as index cases or probands If the genetic predisposition being studied is present 1 degree relatives of the index cases should have the st disorder at a higher rate than that found in the general population. Ex: about 10% of the 1 degree relatives of index cases with schitzo can be diagnosed as having shcitzo compared with about 1% of the general population In the twin method both monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared. MZ twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically the same DZ or fraternal develop from separate eggs and are on average only 50% alike genetically MZ twins are always the same sex but DZ twins can be either the same or opposite When the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to be concordant If its said that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited , concordance should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs than in DZ pairs. When the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate the characteristics being studied is said to be heritable Data shows that panic disorder runs in families but that a genetic predisposition is not necessarily involved Equal environment assumption is that the environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ pairs and DZ pairs. This seems to be reasonable Other factors can complicate the resulted of twin research. Study of post traumatic stress disorder in community residents stein identified 3 factors as biasing heritably estimates: violation of the equal environment assumption, sex of the participant, and his or her age when the assessment took place Only environmental factors contributed to exposure to events involving non assulative traumas ( car accidents) but genetic and enviro factors contributed to exposure to assualtive traumas (sexual assaults) This genetic factors may determine the extent to which a person is likely to experience post traumatic stress after an assualtive trauma This is the 1 study to examine this issue in a non military sample and the 1 to include women but its limited cuz rely on self report measures of trauma Using the adoptees method study kids who were adopted and reared apart from their parents with ab disorders. If a high frequency of panic disorder were found in kids reared apart from parents who also had it could have support for theory that genetic predisposition is in the works Molecular Genetics Tries to specify the particular gene or genes involved and the precise functions of these genes Each cell consists of 46 chromosomes (23) pairs with thousands of genes per chromosome. The term allele refers to any one of several DNA codings that occupy the same position or location on a chromosome. A persons genotype is their set of alleles The term genetic polymorphism refers to variability among members of the species. It involves differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in very dif forms among members of the same habitat. It entails mutations in a chromosome that can be induced or naturally occurring It was discovered in 2004 with research on male meadow voles that manipulating a gene, the vasopressin receptor by locating it in the reward centre of the brain had the effect of making an amorous promiscuous vole into a monogamous vole. Its possible a similar process determines whether humans refrain from having more than 1 partner Linkage analysis is a method in molecular genetics hat is used to study ppl. Use this method in families in which a disorder is heavily concentrated they collect diagnostic info and blood samples from affected indiv and their relatives and use them to study the inheritance patter of characteristics whose genetics are fully understood referred to as genetic markers ex: eye colour is controlled by a gene in a specific location on a specific chromosome it is concluded that the gene predisposing indi to the psychopathology is on the same chromosome and in similar location on that chromate (its linked) as the gene controlling the other chracterticsi linkage analysis in t.o found association btwn obsessive compulsive disorder and the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor 1 (
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