Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 1

PSYB32_Chapter 1

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 1-Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations  PsychopathologyThe nature and development of abnormal behaviour thoughts and feelings  The concepts and labels we use to study abnormal behaviour must be free of subjective feelings of appropriateness ordinarily attached to certain human phenomena. What is Abnormal Behaviour?  Abnormal behaviour includes characteristics such as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness Statistical Infrequency  Abnormal behaviour is infrequent.  The normal curve, or bell-shaped curve puts the majority of people in the middle, very few people fall to either extreme  Not all infrequent behaviours/characteristics are considered abnormal (ie athletic ability) Violation of Norms  Another characteristic is if the behaviour violates norms or makes anxious those who are observing it  Many people who violate norms are not considered abnormal (prostitution or criminals) and many abnormal behaviours do not violate norms (anxiety disorder)  In addition the culture can affect how we view social norms Personal Distress  Behaviour is abnormal if it causes great distress to the person experiencing it  But not all abnormal behaviours create personal distress (Psychopath who feels no guilt) Disability or Dysfuntion  Disability is impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality  Some abnormal behaviours do not create disability (transvestism) and some disabilities are not considered abnormal (ie. Being short and wanting to be a basketball player) Unexpectedness  A behaviour is also considered abnormal when it is an unexpected response to an environmental stressor (hunger is an example of an expected response)  The Mental Health Professions  CliniciansThe various professionals authorized to provide psychological services  Clinical psychologist o Requires a Ph.D or Psy.D degree o Training for Ph.D has heavy emphasis on lab work o First they learn Diagnosisskills needed to determine a patients symptoms associated with a mental disorder o Second they learn Psychotherapya verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour  Psychiatrist o Holds an M.D. degree o Prescribe Psychoactive DrugsChemical compounds that influence the way people feel and think  Psychoanalyst o Requires M.D. and 10 years Psychiatric residency  Social worker o Obtains an M.S.W. degree o Counselling Psychologistsimilar to clinical but less emphasis on research and sever forms of psychopathology o Psychiatric Nurse  There is currently a debate to allow clinical psychologist prescribe History of Psychopathology Early Demonolgy  Demonologythe doctrine that an evil being may dwell in a person and control their mind and body  The treatment of abnormal behaviour was with exorcismthe casting out of evil spirits with ritualistic chanting and torture  Trepanning (the drilling hole in the skull) was assumed to allow evil spirits to exit the body Somatogenesis  Hippocrates was one of the earliest proponents of somatogenesisthe notion that something wrong with the soma (body) disturbs thought and action  Psychogenesis is the belief that a disturbance has psychological origins  Hippocrates categories mental disorders into three categories: mania, melancholia, and  phrenitis ( brain fever)  Hippocrates proposed that an imbalance of the body’s four humours produced disorders o Too much phlegmsluggish or dull o Too much black bilemelancholia o Too much Yellow bileAnxiousness o Too much bloodchangeable temperament The Dark Ages and Demonology  People believed the death of the last physician Galen marked the beginning of the dark ages in the treatment of abnormal behaviour  People heaped enormous blame on people regarded as witches  Malleus Maleficarum (the witches hammer) a textbook on witchcraft. Specified that a loss of reason was a symptom of demonic possession and burning was the cure  Hallucinations of witches came from torture. Thus most were not actually insane  Lunacy trials to determine persons sanity were held in England  English laws allowed the insane to be confined in hospitals  Strange behaviour was typically linked it physical illness (somatogenesis) Development of Asylums  With leprosy no longer a great social concern, people turned to the insane  Leprosariums were converted into Asylumsrefugees established for the confinement and care of the mentally ill.  Hospitals for the confinement of the mentally ill also emerged  St. Mary Bethlehem was a hospital for the confinement of the mentally ill  Over the years it gained the name bedlam, because it became a tourist attraction and the conditions were terrible  Benjamin Rush, considered the father of American psychiatry. Believed that a mental disorder was caused by excess blood in the brain. His treatment was to draw quantities of blood  Also believed many lunatics could be cured by being frightened  Pinel is considered the first figure in the humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums  Believed that patients should be approached with understanding and compassion however he maintained humanitarian treatments for upper classes  Tuke did similar things in England in the York asylum  Both are advocates of moral treatment where patients had close contact with attendants, and led normal lives and generally took responsibility for themselves  Despite this, (1)drugs were the most common treatment, (2) the results were often unfavourable  Thus moral treatment was abandoned in the later part of the 19 century  Dorthea Dix campaigned to improve the lot of people with mental illness  Pioneers from great Britain influenced the design and construction of Asylums in Canada  Provincial mental hospitals became extremely overcrowded and drugs were the primary form of treatment  Community treatment ordersa legal tool that establishes the conditions in which a mentally ill person may live in the community The Beginning of Contemporary Thought  Sydenham advocated an empirical approach to diagnosis ad classification  Emil Kraepelin detect among mental disorders a tendency for a group of symptoms (syndrome) to occur together regularly enough to be regarded as having an underlying physical cause  Proposed to main groups of mental disorders: dementia preaecox (schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis (bi polar disorder)  The cause of schizophrenia he thought was a chemical imbalance, and the cause for manic-depressive psychosis was an irregular metabolism  Since 1978 it was known that a number of mental patients manifested a syndrome that included deterioration of mental and physical abilities, regarded as a disease general paresis  Pasteur established the germ theory of diseasethe view that disease is caused by infection of the body by minute organisms  The specific micro organism that causes syphilis was discovered and a casual link had been established between infection and destruction of certain areas of the brain and a form of psychopathology  Therefore somatogenesis gained great credibility  Many people in western Europe were subject to hysterical states (blindness, paralysis)  Mesmer believed these hysterical states were caused by magnetic fluid in the body and used iron rods and chemicals to adjust the magnetic fluids and cured their hysteria (hypnosis)  Charcot become interested in the non-physiological ca
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.