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Psychology (9,697)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 1

PSYB32_Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1-Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations  PsychopathologyThe nature and development of abnormal behaviour thoughts and feelings  The concepts and labels we use to study abnormal behaviour must be free of subjective feelings of appropriateness ordinarily attached to certain human phenomena. What is Abnormal Behaviour?  Abnormal behaviour includes characteristics such as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness Statistical Infrequency  Abnormal behaviour is infrequent.  The normal curve, or bell-shaped curve puts the majority of people in the middle, very few people fall to either extreme  Not all infrequent behaviours/characteristics are considered abnormal (ie athletic ability) Violation of Norms  Another characteristic is if the behaviour violates norms or makes anxious those who are observing it  Many people who violate norms are not considered abnormal (prostitution or criminals) and many abnormal behaviours do not violate norms (anxiety disorder)  In addition the culture can affect how we view social norms Personal Distress  Behaviour is abnormal if it causes great distress to the person experiencing it  But not all abnormal behaviours create personal distress (Psychopath who feels no guilt) Disability or Dysfuntion  Disability is impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality  Some abnormal behaviours do not create disability (transvestism) and some disabilities are not considered abnormal (ie. Being short and wanting to be a basketball player) Unexpectedness  A behaviour is also considered abnormal when it is an unexpected response to an environmental stressor (hunger is an example of an expected response)  The Mental Health Professions  CliniciansThe various professionals authorized to provide psychological services  Clinical psychologist o Requires a Ph.D or Psy.D degree o Training for Ph.D has heavy emphasis on lab work o First they learn Diagnosisskills needed to determine a patients symptoms associated with a mental disorder o Second they learn Psychotherapya verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour  Psychiatrist o Holds an M.D. degree o Prescribe Psychoactive DrugsChemical compounds that influence the way people feel and think  Psychoanalyst o Requires M.D. and 10 years Psychiatric residency  Social worker o Obtains an M.S.W. degree o Counselling Psychologistsimilar to clinical but less emphasis on research and sever forms of psychopathology o Psychiatric Nurse  There is currently a debate to allow clinical psychologist prescribe History of Psychopathology Early Demonolgy  Demonologythe doctrine that an evil being may dwell in a person and control their mind and body  The treatment of abnormal behaviour was with exorcismthe casting out of evil spirits with ritualistic chanting and torture  Trepanning (the drilling hole in the skull) was assumed to allow evil spirits to exit the body Somatogenesis  Hippocrates was one of the earliest proponents of somatogenesisthe notion that something wrong with the soma (body) disturbs thought and action  Psychogenesis is the belief that a disturbance has psychological origins  Hippocrates categories mental disorders into three categories: mania, melancholia, and  phrenitis ( brain fever)  Hippocrates proposed that an imbalance of the body’s four humours produced disorders o Too much phlegmsluggish or dull o Too much black bilemelancholia o Too much Yellow bileAnxiousness o Too much bloodchangeable temperament The Dark Ages and Demonology  People believed the death of the last physician Galen marked the beginning of the dark ages in the treatment of abnormal behaviour  People heaped enormous blame on people regarded as witches  Malleus Maleficarum (the witches hammer) a textbook on witchcraft. Specified that a loss of reason was a symptom of demonic possession and burning was the cure  Hallucinations of witches came from torture. Thus most were not actually insane  Lunacy trials to determine persons sanity were held in England  English laws allowed the insane to be confined in hospitals  Strange behaviour was typically linked it physical illness (somatogenesis) Development of Asylums  With leprosy no longer a great social concern, people turned to the insane  Leprosariums were converted into Asylumsrefugees established for the confinement and care of the mentally ill.  Hospitals for the confinement of the mentally ill also emerged  St. Mary Bethlehem was a hospital for the confinement of the mentally ill  Over the years it gained the name bedlam, because it became a tourist attraction and the conditions were terrible  Benjamin Rush, considered the father of American psychiatry. Believed that a mental disorder was caused by excess blood in the brain. His treatment was to draw quantities of blood  Also believed many lunatics could be cured by being frightened  Pinel is considered the first figure in the humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill in asylums  Believed that patients should be approached with understanding and compassion however he maintained humanitarian treatments for upper classes  Tuke did similar things in England in the York asylum  Both are advocates of moral treatment where patients had close contact with attendants, and led normal lives and generally took responsibility for themselves  Despite this, (1)drugs were the most common treatment, (2) the results were often unfavourable  Thus moral treatment was abandoned in the later part of the 19 century  Dorthea Dix campaigned to improve the lot of people with mental illness  Pioneers from great Britain influenced the design and construction of Asylums in Canada  Provincial mental hospitals became extremely overcrowded and drugs were the primary form of treatment  Community treatment ordersa legal tool that establishes the conditions in which a mentally ill person may live in the community The Beginning of Contemporary Thought  Sydenham advocated an empirical approach to diagnosis ad classification  Emil Kraepelin detect among mental disorders a tendency for a group of symptoms (syndrome) to occur together regularly enough to be regarded as having an underlying physical cause  Proposed to main groups of mental disorders: dementia preaecox (schizophrenia) and manic-depressive psychosis (bi polar disorder)  The cause of schizophrenia he thought was a chemical imbalance, and the cause for manic-depressive psychosis was an irregular metabolism  Since 1978 it was known that a number of mental patients manifested a syndrome that included deterioration of mental and physical abilities, regarded as a disease general paresis  Pasteur established the germ theory of diseasethe view that disease is caused by infection of the body by minute organisms  The specific micro organism that causes syphilis was discovered and a casual link had been established between infection and destruction of certain areas of the brain and a form of psychopathology  Therefore somatogenesis gained great credibility  Many people in western Europe were subject to hysterical states (blindness, paralysis)  Mesmer believed these hysterical states were caused by magnetic fluid in the body and used iron rods and chemicals to adjust the magnetic fluids and cured their hysteria (hypnosis)  Charcot become interested in the non-physiological ca
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