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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 5: Research methods in the study of Abnormal Behaviour [SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS] Science is the pursuit of systemization knowledge thru observation; refers to both method (the systematic acquisition and evaluation of info) and to a goal (the development of general theories that explain the info) Important for scientific explanations to be testable (open to systematic probes) and reliable (replicable) Testability and Replicability Statements, theories and assertions, must be testable in the public arena and subject to disproof Hypothesis must be amenable to systematic testing that could show it to be false Each observation that contributes to the scientific body of knowledge be replicable or reliable It must be replicable meaning that it should occur under prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly The Role of Theory Theory is a set of propositions meant to explain a class of phenomena- advance theories account for data by proposing cause-effect relationships Theories can play important role in guiding research by suggesting certain additional data be collected Theories permit generation of hypotheses: expectations about what should occur if a theory is true; tested in research The most challenging part of scientific enterprise is generating a theory In formulating a theory, scientists must often make use of theoretical concepts, unobservable stats or processes that are inferred from observable data Repression is a theoretical concept, which are inferred from observable data; can summarize already observed relationships; explains what has been observed; TC become mediators of relationships What criteria are applied in judging the legitimacy of the TC? o Operationism: each concept take as its meaning a single observable and measureable operation; each TC would be nothing more than one particular measureable event o If however, each TC is operationalized in only one way, its generality is lost o TC can be defined by sets of operations or effects: the behaviourphysiological effects are set of operations defining the TC (i.e. hand trembling; heart rate increases); better to do this rather than defining TC by single operation [The Research Methods of Abnormal Psychology] All empirical research entails collection of observable data o some research stays at descriptive level but often researchers observe several events and try to determine how they are associated or related www.notesolution.com
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