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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 Paradigms – conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works - Biological o Mental disorders are caused by biological processes. Medical model or disease model o Heredity can play a role o Behaviour genetics – genotype and phenotype  Genotype – unobservable genetic constitution  Phenotype – observable. Result of interaction of genotype with environment o Monozygotic and dizygotic studies o Dopamine may be associated to schizophrenia o Treatment through balancing of chemicals o Reductionism – whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic elements or constituents - cognitive-behavioural o view abnormal behaviour as responses learned in the same ways other human beaviour is learned o behaviourism – an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than on consciousness o CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – associating CS with UR o OPERANT CONDITIONING –modifying behaviour that operates on the environment o Behaviour modification o Rational-emotive behaviour therapy – aim is to eliminate self- defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them o Cognitive behaviour therapy – manipulating thoughts to make it something else o Meichenbaum’s cognitive-behaviour modification – self-instructional training and stress-inoculation - Psychoanalytic o Developed by Sigmund freud o Unconscious conflicts in the individual o Classical psychoanalytic theory – original views of Freud
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