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PSYB20 Ch 1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 ORIGINS OF BEHAVIOUR Chapter 1 – Child Development: Themes, Theories, and - Is human development influenced by biological Methods or environmental factors? - In early years, psychologists strictly held either What is Child Developmental psychology (CDP)? biological or environmental views - A sub-field of develop. Psych w/ 2 parts: - Arnold Gesell held the biological view o It identifies changes in the child’s o Maturation: a genetically determined cognitive, emotional, motor, and social PROCESS of growth that unfolds capacities and behaviours from naturally over a period of time conception to adolescence (the what) - Arnold B. Watson held the environmental view o It tries to determine processes that o He said, by properly organizing the underlie those chances (the why/how) environment, a criminal or a genius can - Researchers devise theories and test them be produced empirically - Modern theories don’t support these extremes, but explore how both bio and environ. factors History of the development of CDP: interact to produce variations in dif. children - Charles Darwin was an important contributor - Through his research, he demonstrated that PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE scientists could study infants and children - Psychologists debate on 2 basic patterns of - John B. Watson analysed children’s learning development change capacities 1. Continuous: Development is a continuous - Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget were also big process where each new event builds on earlier contributors experiences  smooth accumulation of abilities - James Mark Baldwin studied mental 2. Discontinuous: Development is a series of development on his own daughter abrupt steps or stages in which behaviours get - Canadian Psychological Association (1938)–a reorganized into a qualitatively new set of national organization of Canadian Psychologists behaviours - St. George’s School for Child Study (1926) –an - Contemporary psychologists view development institute for child study still operating currently as basically a combination of both - William Emet Blatz –developmental psychologist that headed the above school and THEORIES OF CHILDREN’S PSYCH. DEVELOPMENT studied the Dionne quintuplets, which over all Structural-Organismic perspective promoted the study of child psychology - The view that the organism goes through an generally in Canada organized or structured series of changes, or discontinuous changes, over the course of Why even study children and their development? development - Info about child development can help society 1. Psychodynamic theory: protect and advance the well-being of children - Sigmund Freud said that the developing - It can be used to help shape social policy on personality is composed of 3 parts (id, ego, behalf of children superego) and goes through 5 stages (Oran, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital) In studying child’s development, there are three - He said the early stages had great influence on categories of debate related psychological growth: later development 1. The origin of human behaviour (Bio vs envrnm.) 2. Psychosocial theory 2. The pattern of developmental change over time - Erik Erikson (student of frued) said there were 8 3. Factors that affect developmental change stages of human development - Adolescence = imp. Stage where the child - Theories on the role of contextual factors in develops a clear identity of self child development 3. Piagetian theory 1. Socio-cultural theory - Jean Piaget introduced a theory to describe - Focuses on the impact of social and cultural intellectual development: as being biologically experience on child development ORGANIZED process and ADAPTABLE to the - Lev S. Vygotsky, proposed that the child’s world development is mediated by the social world. - More experienced people provide assistance to Learning perspective a child who eventually does the task on his own 1. Behaviourism 2. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory - Focuses on the learning of behaviours - The relationships between various - Emphasize the role of experience, and is a environmental systems influence child gradual, continuous view development - Classical conditioning: learning to respond to a - Environmental systems include: stimuli by pairing it with another stimuli o Microsystems: setting in which child - Operant conditioning: learning depends on the lives ex. home or school consequence of behaviour o Mesosystems: interrelation among 2. Cognitive social learning theory Microsystems ex. home and school - Says that children not only learn through o Exosystems: settings which the child operant or classical conditioning but also by has indirect contact ex. parents work observing and imitating others o Macrosystems: culture - Ex. beating a Bobo doll after watching others o Chronosystems: change in the above 4 - A child learns to imitate a behaviour using 4 systems such as puberty, illness... cognitive processes: attention, retention, 3. Lifespan perspective reproduction, and motivation - Sees development as a process that continues 3. Information processing approaches throughout the life cycle - Focuses on how the child processes information - Ex. age cohort effect: a group of individuals who and how this processing of info changes as the were born in the same year or during the same child develops general historical period of time share the same historical experiences Dynamic systems perspectives - The historical context plays a great influence on - Focuses on the change of a child over ti
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