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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

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Abnormal Psychology 4 Canadian Edition Chapter 4 Clinical Assessment Procedures - Clinical assessment procedures are formal ways of finding out what is wrong with a person, what may be the cause of the problem, and what can be done to improve the condition(s) Reliability and Validity in Assessment - Reliability o Consistency of measurement o Inter-rater reliability: degree to which two judges agree o Test-retest reliability: extent to which people being observed twice or taking the same test twice, score in generally the same way o Alternate-form reliability: extent to which scores on two forms of a test are consistent o Internal consistency reliability: assesses relatedness of items on a test - Validity o Whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose o Unreliable measures will not have good validity o Content validity: whether a measure accurately samples the domain of interest o Criterion validity: whether a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure (criterion); assessed by evaluating the measures ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future (predictive validity) o Construct validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined Psychological Assessment - Techniques are designed to determine cognitive, emotional, personality, and behavioural factors in psychopathological functioning - Clinical Interviews o Construe the term from a formal, structured conversation to include any interpersonal encounter where language is used to find out about another person o Characteristics of Clinical Interviews Different from a casual conversation considering the amount of attention the interviewer pays to the interviewees responses Paradigm interviewer operates in influences the type of information sought, how it is obtained, and how it is interpreted Interviewees are often under great stress so the interviewer needs great skill to conduct a good interview Clinicians operating in the analytic paradigm hold that significant aspects of ones disturbed or normal development history are repressed into the unconscious Psychodynamic clinicians assume that people entering therapy often are not aware of what is really bothering them; clinicians have to gain clients trust Most clinicians empathize with clients to encourage them to elaborate their concerns and look at different sides of a problem Clinicians tend to overlook situational factors of the interview that may exert strong influences on the clients responses (i.e. clinicians attire (formal/informal) and clients age younger clients may relate more to informally dressed) Structure of an interview varies and depends on the clinicians methods Reliability and validity may be low for an initial unstructured interview, but more than one interview with a particular client takes place, which has a self-corrective method probably at worko Structured Interviews Interview where the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion Structured Clinical Interview Diagnosis (SCID), for axis I of DSM-VI; assists researchers and clinicians in making diagnostic decisions; branching interview: clients response to a question determines next question; contains detailed instructions on how to conduct the interview Use of structured interviews has helped to improved diagnostic reliability - Psychological Tests o Standardized procedures designed to measure a persons performance on a particular task or assess his personality, thoughts, and behaviour; can provide information when clinical interviews are inconclusive; further structure assessment process o Standardization: statistical norms can be established when there is sufficient data o Ones responses can be compared to statistical norms o Personality Inventories Self-report questionnaire indicating whether statements assessing habitual tendencies apply to self 1940s, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), multiphasic because designed to detect a number of psychological problems Superficial knowledge of abnormal psychology would alert a disturbed person that in order to be regarded as normal, he must not admit to certain behaviours which would thereby hinder the test However, most people do not falsify answers because they want to be helped MMPI includes validity scales designed to detect faked responses- o Projective Personality Tests Psychological assessment device where a set of standard stimuli (ambiguous enough to allow variation) is pres
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