Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
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chpt2.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chpt 2: Current Paradigms and Role of Cultural Factors Role of Paradigms - science not completely objective - paradigm: conceptual framework within which scientist works; set of basic assump- tions that outline particular universe of science inquiry - specify which problem scientist works; intristic par of science - Paradigm: injects biases in definition = affect interpretation of facts = meaning depend on paradigm TYPES OF PARADIGMS Biological Paradigm (medical model/ disease model): continuation of somatogenic hy- pothesis = mental disorders caused by aberrant bio processes - germ theory by Louis Pasteur cannot explain everything (Heart disease) = but all of them caused when some bio process disrupted - Extreme form: insanity exists b/c ego controlled from diseased periphery nerve tract of central = remove part of physical disease =removal of ovarian Contemporary Approaches to Bio Paradigm - Heredity predisposes: develop schizophrenia, depression from chemical imbalance, anxiety disorders from defect in autonomous nervous system = person easily aroused, demential impairment in structures of brain = assume answers found in brain Behavior Genetics - ovum ( female reproductive cell) joined male spermatozoon = zygote with 46 chromo- somes - each chromosome made up of genes = carriers of genetic info = DNA passed from DNA - Behavior Genetics: study of individual differences in behavior attributed to differences in genetic make up - genotype: unobservable genetic make up - phenotype: her observable, behavior characteristics = level of anxiety - Genotype: fixed at birth - phenotype: changes over time = genotype + environment - measure of intelligence ( phenotype) - predisposition inherited = not disorder itself - Study of behavior genetics 4 methods: Chpt 2: Current Paradigms and Role of Cultural Factors - comparison of members of a family, pairs of twins, investigation of adoptees, and link- age analysis - family method: genetic predisposition among members of family because average number of genes shared by two blood relatives is known - first degree relatives: people share 50% of their genes with given individuals - second degree relatives: people shared 25% genetic make up (uncle) - Mental disorder: study family should reveal relationship between shared genes and prevalence of disorder in relevance Starting Point: - indexes (probands) = sample individuals bear diagnosis in question - relatives determine frequency with same diagnosis applied them. - genetic disposition present first degree relatives have predisposition for disorder at higher rate than found in general population - Twin Method - monozygotic (MZ) twins = from single fertilized egg and are the same; always fame sex - dizygotic (DZ) twins = from separate eggs on average only 50% alike genetically; not always same sex - concordance: if disease presence in one also present in another - greater concordance rate in MZ than DZ = then heritable - Assumption: equal environment: environmental factors partial causes of concordance are equally influential - DZ/MZ have equal number of stressful experiences - Stein: post traumatic disorder: 3 factors biased disorders: age, sex, violation of equal environment - non assaultive traumas (natural disorders) = environmental facts contributed to expo- sure to assaultive traumas - assaultive traumas = - genetic factors: extent person is able to experience post traumatic - Adoptee method: study children abnormal disorders were reared apart - infrequent eliminates effects of being raised by disordered parents - apart from parents - still have disorder = support for genetic predisposition Chpt 2: Current Paradigms and Role of Cultural Factors Molecular Genetics: specific genes involved and their function - cell: 46 chromosomes (23 pairs= one of each pair comes from mom and dad )= thou- sands genes per chromosome - allele: any location of several NA coding which occupy same position - genetic polymorphism: variability among members of species: differences DNA se- quence manifest differently among members of same habitat - Animal research: manipulate genes = vasopressin receptor = making monogamous vole - Linkage analysis: study families where disor- der is very concentrated - use blood samples to study genetic markers: inheritance patterns of characteristics that are fully un- derstood - Occurrence of form of psychopathology among rel- atives occurs of another characteristics who genet- ics are known, concluded: gene predisposing individ- uals to psychopathology is on same chromosome and in similar location on chromosome (linked) - replicable support for candidate gene is not al- ways found - genetic linkage in adolescents locus on chromosome 9 = en- hanced risk for externalizing psychopathology ( aggression) - - research in area often hypothesize gene-environment interactions - focus on only genetic factors promotes that illness and mental ill- ness are predetermined - aka bio is destiny ; Cans dont hold overly deterministic view of causes of illness Neuroscience and Biochem in Nervous system - Neuroscience: study of brain and nervous system: cogni- tive, molecular, cellular - nervous system has neurons: - All neurons have - 1) cell body 2) several dendrites 3) one of more ax- ons of varying length ( one long and thin axon extending distance from cell body) 4) terminal buttons on ends of axons Chpt 2: Current Paradigms and Role of Cultural Factors - neuron stimulated = - nerve impulse = change in electric potential of cell - nerve impulse travels down axon to terminal endings - synapse: small gap between terminal endings of sending axon and cell membrane of receiving neuron - neurotransmitter = chemical substances allow nerve impulse to pass synapse - cell membrane of post synaptic neuron has receptor sites (proteins) which are config- ured so that specific neurotransmitters can fit into them - post synaptic neuron: - excitatory: creates nerve impulses in post synaptic neuron - Inhibitory: post synaptic neuron less likely to fire - Some released neurotransmitter stays in synapses: broken down by - Reuptake: some pumped back in presynaptic
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