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Chapter 4

Psyb20 ch4 Full details needed!

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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20 ch4 The newborn Neonates : inborn baby A new baby’s reflexes -first behaviors are reflexes -many of these reflexes help ensure the newborn’s survival -abnormalities in a baby’s reflexes during the first days, or weeks after birth can be useful indicators for identifying visual and hearing problems -they can even help predict abnormal functions -reflexes that are either weak, absent, unusually strong, or that fail to disappear when expected can be a sign of neurological problems Infant states -alternative patterns of sleep and wakefulness known as infant state which is recurring pattern of arousal that ranges from alert, vigorous, wakeful activity to quiet regular sleep -human behavior is organized and predictable -internal forces regulate much of our behavior and explain many of the changes in our activity levels -internal forces play a central role in infant states and their changes -two basics infant states: sleeping and waking which include variations Sleep -newborn sleeps about 70 percent -infant becomes less fussy as she gains better control over her states of arousal -not all cultures organize sleep patterns in the same way -sleeping arrangements differ across cultures as well -many cultures encourage co-sleeping arrangements -the sleeping arrangements of parent nd children represent central ideas about family relationships and the proper course of human dev -infants also have REM sleep, but there is no reveal that they dream -REM is also characterized by increase in heart rate and blood pressure -they have a lot of REM sleep, about 50% whereas as we get older REM is decreased to about 20% of our sleep -autostimulation theory: theory that during REM the infants brain stimulates itself and stimulates early dev of the central nervous system -the speed with which infants reduce their percentage of REM could depend on how much external stimulation they receive -infant who were encouraged to stay awake and were exposed to visual stimuli spent less time in REM sleep than infants in a control condition who were not provided with these opportunities Crying -earliest means of communicating needs to caregivers -different patterns of crying depend on varying needs -in the early months it is related to the infants physiology -by 3 months it is less associated with physiological distress and increasingly related to psychological needs ex: wanting to be picked up or played with -use to believe that rushing to soothe a crying baby is spoiling the baby, but it is also said that when mothers respond promptly to their crying infants, the frequency and duration of crying may actually decrease -It depends on the situation, if you ignore the baby crying for simple reasons that won’t actually affect the baby but help the baby learn, it is good, but if the baby is in pain or needs comfort attention to that does not spoil the child but more likely comfort and reassure the baby -so the parent must be a good judge of the causes of the baby’s cries -colic: a prolonged period of unexplained crying -it is usually harmless, and in some cases it may indicate and illness -so the cry is not only a form of communication but also an indicator of illness or problems How to soothe and infant Infants abilities to soothe themselves -by sucking, including their own thumb or hand -immediately after birth and before the baby’s first oral feeding, simply sucking on a pacifier reduces distress -it lessens overall body movements -an infant begins to rely on social contact with caregivers to soothe him and help regulate his states How parents soothe their babies -when infants pay more attention to their environment they learn more when they are in a calm alert state -parents use the pacifier for sucking to put them in this state -effective soothing also includes rocking, swaddling, and massaging Evaluating the newborn’s health and capabilities -widely used test the Brazelton Neonatal assessment scale: it is a scale used to emasure an infants sensory and perceptual capabilities, motor dev, range of states, and ability to regulate thse states. It also indicates if the brain and the central nervous systems are properly regulating autonomic responsivity -it can identify infants at risk aid at diagnosing neurological impairment and can predict later dev -newborns who score high on this scale tend to score higher on later measure of cognitive, motor or social dev -it may also predict later parent-infant interaction The infants sensory and perceptual capacities -the infants sensory rececptors teach them about the world through their sensations-the stimuli their sensory receptors detect and perceptions-their interpretations of the stimuli they detect -these are quite well developed even at birth -babies’ sensory and perceptual systems may be biologically prepared to process and respond to social stimuli Unlocking the secrets of babies’ sensory capabilities -many of the research methods we use to study sensation and perception in older children and adults are not available for studying infants -we cannot be sure they experience the same sensations as older children and adults -researchers therefore rely on the autonomic nervous system, changes that occur, such as change in heart rate n breathing -also an infants motor responses such as kicking can be a form of indicator even sucking may be used, such as the change in rate of sucking -by noting changes in the types of behaviors, we can see how babie’s discriminate among different stimuli -visual preference method:you can see how infants differentiate by presenting visual stimuli, if the baby stares at a specific one longer we can detect that he discriminated -the baby is more interested in that which is not normal -habituation: we use this and present a stimuli over and over again until the baby stops responding, then we know it has habituated -it can also be used to study the baby’s ability to distinguish stimuli presented to the other senses-sights, smells and tactile sensations Hearing: babies are good listeners -fetuses can distinguish their mothers voices and sounds and rythms of material that are being read to them -there hearing is not as acute, so they respond more to louder sounds, -they are also more sensitive to higher pitched than lower pitch which is why mothers tend to talk to them in high pitched voices called motherese -first 2 years they eventually reach adult range of discrimination -they can also judge where a sound is coming from and how far away what we call auditory localization -this is shown by them turning their heads toward the sound -they can also perceive many different aspects of musical structure and changes in melodies -human beings are biologically prepared for processing music -it is however not true that playing Mozart while the fetus is in the tomb that is will have an effect on its intellectual capabilities -maternal singing can however modulate infant arousal -babies also learn to discriminate among voices very quickly -this ability facilitates the dev of an emotional bond between parent and child Vision: how babies see their world -newborn humans can detect changes in brightness, distinguish movement in the visual field, and follow or track a moving object with their eyes The clarity of infant’s vision -visual acuity: sharpness of vision, the clarity with which a person can discern fine details -seems to be within the normal adult range by 6 months-1 yr -gradually babies develop the ability to detect more detailed patterns How babies perceive colors -see it early in life -3 to 4 months can distinguish between most colors -4 months similar to adults -brain structures and neural pathways important in color discrimination are quite immature during the first week of life How babies perceive patterns -some say pattern perception is innate -others say that experience is needed to piece the elements together into meaningful patterns -infact both learning and experience are generally required -certain elements of a complex pattern attract a newborsn attention -they do not however see in whole, just in parts -by 2 months they can visually trace both the edges of a pattern and internal areas -although infants from 3-5 months can extract a human figure’s structure from info about its motion, they do not seem to recogn
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