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Chapter 4

PSYB20 Ch4.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 Box4.2 How culture affects crying and soothability: Chapter 4 – Infancy: Sensation, Perception, and learning - There is a “normal” crying curve that regulates the amount of infant crying THE NEWBORN - Infants crying gradually ↑’s over the first 2 th - Neonates: a new born baby months of life, then ’s till the 4 month - They have reflexes: involuntary responses to - There is a cross cultural difference with infants’ external stimulation duration of crying - They also have infant state: a recurring pattern o !Kung San infants cry for about half the of arousal. Ranges from alert, vigorous, wakeful time of the Western babies activity, to quite regular sleep. - There are also cross cultural differences with - Sleep: newborn sleeps 70% of the time, but by 8 infants soothability weeks old, she sleeps more at night o European-American babies in the US o REM sleep: rapid-eye-movement dream shifted more frequently b/w states of o Lack of REM sleep leads to irritable and contentment and distress disorganized people o Chinese-American babies in US tended o Infants sleep is 50% REM, adult is 20% to calm themselves more readily and o Anti-stimulatory theory: a theory that were also more easily consoled during REM sleep, the infant’s brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, THE INFANT’S SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL CAPACITIES stimulates early development of CNS - Sensation: the detection of stimuli by the - Crying: earliest means of communication sensory receptors o Three patters of crying - Perceptions: the interpretations of sensations 1. Basic: linked to hunger, gradual crying... in order to make them meaningful 2. Angry: removal of toy... like basic... - The infants sensory and perceptual abilities are 3. Pain: sudden crying very sensitive to the social environment o Colic: a prolonged period of - So, they may be biologically prepared to unexplained crying in an infant respond to the social environment - How to soothe an infant - A variety of techniques are used to study their o Very young infants have some sensory capabilities techniques to soothe them-selves ex. o Relying on information from the sucking autonomic NS o Soothing babies in order to help them o Violation-of-expectation method: reach a state in which they are not too introducing an unusual or impossible drowsy or upset is one critical task of sight and monitoring for any Δ in the parenting. Ex. rocking, swaddling, infants behaviour massaging o Visual preference method: measuring o Swaddling: wrapping baby in blanket the length of time infants spend and keeping the arms and legs attending to different stimuli to study immobile their ability to distinguish b/w stimuli - Evaluating the newborns health and o Habituation: the process by which an capabilities: individual reacts with less and less o Tests of babies reflexes intensity to repeatedly presented o Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale: stimuli, eventually not responding at all measures infant’s sensory and  this method can be used to perceptual capabilities, motor study the baby’s ability to development, and range of states. distinguish stimuli Hearing: babies are good listeners - Stereoscopic vision: a sense of 3 spatial - the development of the auditory system is dimension produced by the brain’s fusion of the completed way before birth separate images contributed by both eyes, each -
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