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Psychology (9,699)
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Chapter 1

PSYB20 CHAPTER 1.docx

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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PSYB20 CHAPTER 1 Child development, themes, theories, and methods Child development Identifies and describes changes in childs cognitive, emotion, motor and social capabilities from conception throughout adolescence Attempts to uncover processes that underlie those changes and explain why these occur Maturation: genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time Development 3 key issues pertaining to psychological growth 1. Origin of behaviour (biological VS environmental) 2. Pattern of developmental change (Continuity VS discontinuity) 3. Forces that affect developmental change (Contextual VS cultural) Biological VS environmental Both influence human development but they disagree on relative importance on each Gesell believed development was predetermined by biological factors o Focus on maturation natural unfolding of development Watson believed it is environment that shapes course of child development BUT both interact to produce developmental variation in children Continuity VS discontinuity Continuity each new event builds on earlier experiences o Smooth and gradual process o Development changes add to, or build on, earlier abilities o Quantitative changes Discontinuity development is a series of discrete steps or stages where behaviour is reorganized into a new set of behaviors o Qualitative changes o Incremental, step-like changes Continuity quantitative gradual Discontinuity qualitative periods of change rd 3 view Robert Siegler overlapping view Children use a varies of strategies in thinking and learning and that cognition involves constant competition among different strategies rather than the use of a single strategy Individual characteristics VS contextual and cultural influences How do different children respond when confronted with situational challenges or risks to healthy development? Risks = biological, psychological, environmental 3 results o suffer permanent developmental disruptions o sleeper effects cope well but exhibit problems later in life o resilience able to deal w/ challenges TF if faced w/ challenges later on- better able to adapt to challenges than children who experience little or no risk Approaches to Child development Structural- organismic Learning Dynamic systems Contextual Ethological and evolutionary STRUCTURAL ORGANISMIC THEORY Use by both Freud, and Piaget Both shared the view that organisms goes through an organized or structured series of stages or discontinuous changes over the course of development. Theoretical approach that describe psychological structures and processes that undergo qualitative or stage like changes over the course of development Freud (PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES) Id (instincts), ego (rational), superego (internalizing morals and beliefs) Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital (OAPLG) ordinary apples play large gambles Erickson (PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORIES) 1. Trust/mistrust 4. Industry/ inferiority 7. Generative/ Stagnation 2. Autonomy/ Doubt 5. Identity/confusion 8. Integrity/ despair 3. Initiative/ Guilt 6. Intimacy/isolation Piaget (PIAGETIAN THEORIES) 1. Sensori-motor 2. Pre- operational 3. Concrete operational 4. Formal operationalLEARNING THEORIES Behaviorism o Skinner (Operant Conditioning) o Pavlov classical conditioning Cognitive social learning theory o Children learn not just through classical and operant conditioning but also by observing and imitating others mediated by cognitive processes and skills o Imitation is not automatic it is selected; the select specific behaviors to imitate and imitation relies on how they processed the information Information processing approaches o Developmental theory o Focus on the flow on info through childs cognitive system Beginnin
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