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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Infancy.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

By: Paraniya Infancy: Sensation, Perception, and Learning o They have discovered that babies can hear, see, and respond to various types of sights and sounds at a much earlier age than was once believed o At the moment of birth, and for a little while afterward, most newborns, or neonates, are pretty homely little beings. Their noses, ears, and entire head often bear the marks and the pressures exerted on them as they passed through the birth canal and their skins is often red, wrinkled, and blotchy, partly as a result of floating for nine months in the amniotic fluid o Newborns have many capabilities. They have well-developed reflexes and sensory responses, and they can respond and adapt to the environment from the first moments after birth Some of the first behaviors to appear are the reflexes which a humans involuntary response to external stimulation Many of these reflexes help ensure the newborns survival Abnormalities in a babys reflexes during the first days or weeks after birth can be useful indicators for identifying visual and hearing problems, and they can even help predict abnormal functions that do not appear until months or years later A newborns major reflexes include permanent: a. Biceps reflex tested by tapping on tendon of biceps baby should display short contraction of muscle becomes brisker in the first few days b. Eye blink tested by flashing a bright light in babys eyes baby blinks or closes eyes this protects baby from strong stimuli relatively unchanging c. Patellar tendon reflex (knee jerk) tested by tapping on the tendon below the knee cap, or patellar baby quickly extends or kicks leg weak or absent in depressed babies or those with muscular disease -- more pronounced first two days d. Withdrawal reflex tested by pricking sole of babys foot gently with a pin baby withdraws feet absent when there is damage to the sciatic nerve constantly present during the first 10 days A newborns major reflexes include temporary: a. Babinski reflex tested by stroking bottom of foot babys toes curves up and other toes fan and curl absent in defects of the lower spine usually disappears by end of first year b. Babkin or palmar reflex tested with baby lying on back, apply pressure to both palms baby opens mouth, closes eyes, and moves head to midline position inhibited in general depression of the CNS disappears by 3-4 months c. Moro reflex suddenly allowing babys head to drop back a few inches, loud noise baby throws arms outward and extend legs; then bring both arms to center clenching the fists d. Palmar grasp tested by pressing a finger or cylindrical object against babys palm baby grasps object weak or abscent in depressed babies initially strong; disappears by 3-4 months By: Paraniya e. Plantar or toe grasp pressing on the ball of the babys foot baby curls all toes, as if grasping abscent in defects of the lower spinal cord disappears between 8-12 months f. Rooting response stroke babys cheek lightly baby turns head toward finger, opens mouth and tries to suck absent in depressed babies disappears about 3-4 months becomes voluntary g. Stepping reflex support baby in upright position and move her forwards, tilting her slightly to one side baby makes rhythmic stepping movements absent in depressed infants disappears 3-4 months h. Sucking response insert finger 1-1.5 inches into babys mouth baby sucks finger rhythmically weak, slow, interrupted sucking found in apathetic babies; maternal medication during childbirth may depress sucking often less intensive and regular in first 3-4 days; disappears by 6 months o Babies have alternative patterns of sleep and wakefulness. These patterns are referred to as the infant state, which is a recurring pattern of arousal in the newborn, ranging from alert, vigorous, wakeful activity to quiet, regular sleep Indicates that from early in life, human behavior is organized and predictable Human beings are not passive creatures that merely react to the environment. Internal forces play a central role in infant states and their changes Arousal patterns begin to form before birth There are two basic infant states -- waking and sleeping o The newborn, on average, sleeps about 70 percent of the time in a series of long and short naps during the day and night. By the time an infant is 4 weeks old, her periods of sleep tend to be fewer but longer, and by the time she is 8 weeks old she is sleeping more during the night and less during the day By the end of the first year, most infants sleep through the night The newborn infant states go through: a. Regular sleep (8-9 hours) b. Irregular sleep (8-9 hours) c. Drowsiness (1/2 to 3 hours) d. Alert inactivity (2-3 hours) e. Waking activity (2-3 hours) f. Crying (1-3 hours) Not all cultures organize sleep patterns in the same way that North America parents do. Among the Kipsigis tribe of rural Kenya, infants are constantly with their mothers and regularly take naps throughout the day In contrast to North America babies, who gradually begin to sleep longer at night and less during the day Many cultures encourage co-sleeping arrangements, with parent(s) and infant in the same bed By: Paraniya Some mothers view the North American custom of separate beds for babies as tantamount to child neglect Clearly, the sleeping arrangements of parents and children represent central ideas about family relationships and proper course of human development. Co-sleeping arrangements may also have specific health benefits for the developing infant, such as the risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) which is essentially the unexpected death of an otherwise apparently healthy infant under 1 year of age. The death usually remains unexplained after all known and possible causes of death have been ruled out Different phases of the infant sleep cycle: One distinction that has been identified is between the REM sleep which the rapid-eye movement sleep which is characterized by rapid, jerky movement of the eyes, and in adults, is often associated with dreaming; and the non-REM sleep which is the inactivity of the stated activity listed above 50% of infants spend their sleep in REM activity, whereas adults only spend about 20% If people are awakened repeatedly as they begin REM sleep, and thus prevented from obtaining sleep of this type, then tend to be irritable and disorganized during their later waking hours Autostimulation theory which is a theory that states during REM sleep the infants brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, stimulates early development of the CNS As the infant develops and becomes more alert and capable of processing external stimulation, this type of built-in stimulation may become less necessary o Crying is one of the infants earliest means of communicating needs to caregivers. These different patterns of crying, reflective of infants varying needs, have been identified: 1. Basic this is linked to hunger, among other factors. Starts arrhythmically and at low intensity; gradually becomes louder and more rhythmic cry-rest-inhale-rest 2. Angry segments of crying, resting, and inhaling vary in length, and crying segments are longer. Causes can include removal of a pacifier or toy 3. Pain sudden in onset, loud from the start, and made up of a long cry followed by a long silence that includes holding of the breath, and then followed by a series of short, grasping inhalations. Causes include discomfort from soiled diaper, a pin prick, or stomach pain o In the early months of life, crying is related to the infants physiology. By 3 or 4 months, however, crying is less associated with physiological distress and increasingly related to psychological needs, such as wanting to be picked up or played with o Intervention of mother when baby is crying becomes an opportunity for social interaction so the caregiver is rewarded in t
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