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Chapter 2

Child Psychology Chapter 2 Review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Child Psychology Chapter 2 Review: 1. What is active genetic-environmental interaction? o Active genetic-environmental interaction is a kind of interaction in which people’s genes encourage them to seek out experience compatible with their inherited tendencies 2. What is a passive genetic-environmental interaction? o A passive genetic-environmental interaction is the interactive environment created by parents with particular genetic predispositions who encourage the expression of these tendencies in their children 3. What are evocative influences? o Evocative influences are when inherited tendencies evoke certain responses from others, thus shaping their social environment 4. What is an evocative genetic-environmental interaction? o Evocative genetic-environmental interaction is the expression of the gene’s influence on the environment through an individual’s inherited tendencies to evoke certain environmental responses 5. What is a gene? o A gene is a portion of DNA that is located at a particular site on a chromosome and that codes for the production of certain kinds of proteins 6. What is an allele? o An allele is an alternative form of a gene; typically, a gene has two alleles, one inherited from the individual’s mother and one from the father 7. What is co-dominance? o Co-dominance is a genetic pattern in which heterozygous alleles express the variant of the trait for which they code simultaneously and with equal force 8. What is chorionic villus sampling? o Chorionic villi sampling is a technique for sampling and assessing cells withdrawn from the chorionic villi, which are projections from the chorion that surrounds the amniotic sac; cells are withdrawn either through a tube inserted into the uterus through the vagina or through a needle inserted through the abdominal wall 9. What is alphafetoprotein assay (AFP)? o AFP is a blood test performed prenatally to detect such problems as Down syndrome, the presence of multiple embryos, and defects of the CNS 10. What is aminocentesis? o Aminocentesis is a technique for sampling and assessing fetal cells for indications of abnormalities in the developing fetus; performed by inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the amniotic sac and withdrawing a small amount of the amniotic fluid. 11. What are chromosomes? o Chromosomes are thread-like structures, located in the central portion, or nucleus, of a cell, that carry genetic information to help direct development 12. What are autosomes? o Autosomes are the 22 paired non-sex chromosomes in males and females that determine the development of most body structures and attributes 13. What is crossing over? o Crossing over is the process by which equivalent sections of homologous chromosomes switch places randomly, shuffling the genetic information each carries 14. What is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)? o DNA is a ladder-like molecule that stores genetic information in cell and transmits it during reproduction 15. What is canalization? o Canalization is the genetic restriction of a phenotype to a small number of developmental outcomes, permitting environmental influences to play only a small role in these outcomes 16. What is monozygotic? o Monozygotic is characterizing identical twins, who have developed from a single fertilized egg 17. What is dizygotic? o Dizygotic is characterizing fraternal twins, who have developed from two separate fertilized eggs 18. What is dominant? o Dominant is describing the more powerful of two alleles in a heterozygous combination 19. What is Down syndrome? o Down syndrome is a form of chromosome abnormality, in which the person suffers disabling physical and mental development and is highly susceptible to such illnesses as leukemia, heart disorders, and respiratory infections 20. What is the fragile X syndrome? o Fragile X syndrome is a form of chromosome abnormality, more common in males than in females, in which an X chromosome is narrowed in some areas, causing it to be fragile and leading to a variety of physical, psychological, and social problems 21. What is a genotype? o A genotype is a particular set of genes that a person inherits from her parents 22. What is goodness of fit? o Goodness of fit is a measure of the degree to which a child’s temperament is matched by her environment. The more effectively parents and other agents of socialization accept and adapt to the child’s unique temperament, the better this “fit” 23. What is hemophilia? o Hemophilia is a disorder caused by an X-linked recessive gene, in which the blood fails to clot; found more often in males than in females 24. What are heritability factors? o Heritability factors are a statistical estimate of the contribution made by heredity to a particular trait or ability 25. What is heterozygous? o Heterozygous is describing the state of an individual whose alleles for a particular trait from each parent are different
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