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PSYB32 - 10-14.doc

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Connie Boudens

The most prevalent explanation is that it is linked to a decrease in the number of daylight hours; seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A Study found that one in five people in an Inuit community were depressed. Icelanders go without light for many months in the winter, yet as a group, they have surprisingly low levels of SAD, 1.2%. Might have lower rate because they have adapted genetically to reduce sunlight and are somehow protected against SAD. CHRONIC MOOD DISORDERS: Cyclothymic disorder: the person has frequent periods of depressed mood and hypomania, which may be mixed with, may alternate with, or may be separated by periods of normal mood lasting as long as two months. during depression, they feel inadequate; during hypomania, their self-esteem is inflated. They withdraw from people, then seek them out in an uninhibited fashion. They sleep too much and then too little. The person with dysthymic disorder is chronically depressed – more than half the time for at least two years. insomnia or sleeping too much; feelings of inadequacy; ineffectiveness, and lack of energy; pessimism; an inability to concentrate and to think clearly; and a desire to avoid the company of others. Women are 2-3 times more likely than men. Many people with it have episodes of major depression, as well, a condition known as double depression. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF MOOD DISORDERS: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF DEPRESSION: Freud; during the oral period, a child’s needs may be insufficiently or oversufficiently gratified, causing the person to become fixated in this stage. With this arrest in psychosexual maturation, the person may develop a tendency to be excessively dependent on other people for the maintenance of self-esteem. Freud hypothesized that after the loss of a loved one, the mourner first interjects, or incorporates, the lost person’ he identifies with the lost one, perhaps in a fruitless attempt to undo the loss. Because we unconsciously harbour negative feelings toward those we love, the mourner then becomes the object of his own hate and anger. The period of introjections is followed by a period of mourning work, separates himself from the person who has died or has died or disappointed him and loosens the bonds imposed by introjections. But the mourning work can go astray and develop into an ongoing process of self-abuse, self-blame and depression in overly dependent individuals. COGNITIVE THEORIES OF DEPRESSION: Beck’s Theory of Depression: depressed individuals feel as they do because their thinking is biased toward negative interpretations. The negative schemata acquired by depressed persons are activated whenever they encounter new situations that resemble in some way, perhaps only remotely, the conditions in which the schemata were learned. An ineptness schema can make depressed individuals expect to tail most of the time, a self-blame schema burdens them with responsibility for all misfortunes and a negative self-evaluation schema constantly reminds them of their worthlessness. Negative schemata, together with cognitive biases or distortions, maintain what Beck called the negative triad: negative views of the self, the world, and the future. The following describes the principal cognitive biases:
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