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Chapter 1

PsyB20 Chapter 1.doc

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Chandan Narayan

Chapter 1: Child Development: Themes, Theories, and Methods - child development o identify and describe changes in child’s cognitive, emotional, motor and social capacities and behaviours from moment of conception to adolescence o uncovering processes that underlie these changes and explain how and why they occur o interested in specific strategies that children use to help them achieve new skills and behaviours e.g. categorization and socialization - can observe some processes in simpler forms in children than in adults - research findings can lead to helpful advice on wide range of current issues o e.g. creating and selecting daycare programs, handling temper tantrums , dealing with effects of television violence - Baldwin one of earliest persons to study children, by studying his own daughter - Blatz studied Dionne quintuplets - biological and environmental factors influence human development - maturation: genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time - Gesell believed human development solely based on biological / heredity - Watson  human development based on environment o genetic factors place no restrictions on environmental events that shape child’s development - interplay between biology and environment is evident o hormones (genetic) and experiences of aggression (environment) influence individual’s development of aggressive behaviour o genetic inheritance and nutrition affect physical and social development - children are active seekers of information and try to understand and explore world - children actively modify actions of parents and other people whom they encouninr their daily lives - continuity: development is smooth and gradual, without any abrupt shifts along path - discontinuity: development occurs in a series of discrete steps or stages, different at each new stage - qualitative change e.g. memory o change in memory techniques as you get older - however, able to see a gradual change in which child slowly learns to adopt best approach - situational influences – individual characteristics o characteristics may or may not be similar across all situations o e.g. aggressive child may or may not be aggressive all the timdepends on situation if it promotes aggressive behaviour - risk and resilience o may alter our developmental trajectories for better or for worse o e.g. genetic risksserious illness o e.g. Demographic人口学的 risks family income o others include divorce, death, physical accidents, etc - children respond to risks in different ways o can suffer permanent developmental disruptions or delays o “sleeper” effectsinitially alright but exhibit problems later in development o can be unaffected from risk, instead enhance from it - three primary protective factors that buffer child (and later the adult) from effects of risk and stress and to promote coping and good adjustment o positive individual attributes  high in temperament 性 情 , high self-esteem, intelligent, etc, are more adaptable in stressful life experiences  girls and women have slight edge in resiliency than boys and men o supportive family environment  warm, supportive parent can help buffer adverse effects of poverty, divorce, child abuse, etc o people outside family and societal agencies and institutions  school, peer groups, churches, etc, support coping efforts - differences in types and timing of experiences have profound influences on child’s course of development Theoretical Perspectives on Development - theories help organize and integrate existing information into coherent and interesting accounts of how children develop and lead to testable hypotheses - behaviourism: behaviour must be based on direct observations of actual behaviour and not on speculations about such unobservable things as human motives - children play relatively passive role in their own development, doing only what environment tells them to do - classical conditioning (Pavlov): type of learning in which individuals learn to respond to unfamiliar stimuli in same way they are accustomed to respond to familiar stimuli if the two stimuli are repeatedly presented together o e.g. Pavlov’s dog associated ringing of bell with fsalivation o e.g. Watson associated rats with fear of nofear of rats - operant conditioning (Skinner): type of learning in which learning depends on consequences of behaviour; rewards increase likelihood that a behaviour will recur, whereas punishment decreases that likelihood o positive reinforcementcan increase a specific behaviour o punishment  decrease a specific behaviour - cognitive social learning theory: learning by observation and imitation mediated by cognitive processes and skills o Bandura  child watches adult hit clown - Bandura’s four sets of processes o attend  interpret and process social behaviour on basis of own personality variables, past experience, relationship with model, and situation in which observation takes place o retention must remember behaviour through rehearsing, organizing, and recalling observed behaviour o reproduce o motivation incentive to reproduce behaviour - Piagetian theory: sees child as actively seeking new information and incoitorating into knowledge base through processes of assimilation (current knowledge) and accommodation (new knowledge) o children actively interpret and make sense of information and events they encounter o way child organizes new information depends on level of cognitive development o development as a discontinuous process o cognitive development is a decentring process go from egocentric 己主义 as a child and then a complex, multifaceted view of world - Vygotsky o sociocultural theory: sees development as evolving out of children’s interactions with more skilled others in their social environment o children are products of social interparents, teachers and others o child has set of innate abilities that form interactions with adults and peers into more complex cognitive functions o use “tools (mediator)” (e.g. language, mnemonic devices , etc) to solve problems and understand world - information processing theories: flow of information through child’s cognitive system and that are particularly interested in specific operations child performs between input and output phases o interested in steps that child performs between input and output o child attends informatiochanges it into a mental or cognitive representation stores it in memory compares it with other memories generates various responses makes decision about most appropriate responstakes specific action Psychodynamic Perspectives - psychodynamic theory: dynamic forces within individual determine motivation and behaviour - Freud's theory that development, which proceeds in discrete stages, is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of three components of personality-- the id, ego, and superego Freud - psychoanalytic theory of development: development is determined by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with environment and through interaction of three components – the id, ego, and superego - id: person’s instinctual drives; first component of personality to evolve o operates on basis of pleasure principle o maximize pleasure and satisfy immediate needs (e.g. hunger) - ego: rational, controlling component of personality o satisfy needs through appropriate, socially acceptable behaviours - superego: repository of child’s internalization of parental or societal values, morals, and roles o accepts and absorbs parental behaviours - Recent years, psychoanalytic theory has been largely unsupported by scientific evidence. - Psychosexual stages(4) of development o oral, anal, phallic (Oedipus complex and Electra complex恋 父 ), latency (sexual urges repress, focus on school), genital Erikson - psychosocial theory: sees children through a series of stages largely through accomplishing tasks that involve them in interaction with their social environment - Stages(8) of development o 0-1: Infancy(basic trust vs. mistrust), o 1-3: early childhood(self-control and autonomvs. Shame and doubt), o 3-6: play age(initiative vs. guilt), o 6-12: school age(industry vs. Inferiority), o 12-20: adolescence(identity vs. Role confusing), o 20-30: young adulthood(intimacy为 vs. isolation), o 30-65: adulthood(generativity
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