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PSYB20 Ch 8.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 o The errors of children of a particular age Chapter 8 Cognitive Development: Piaget and differed in systematic ways from those Vygotsky of older or younger children - To study childrens thinking, he relied on two Cognition methods: interviews and observations - the term used to describe the mental activity - His theory became popular in North America in through which human beings acquire, the 1960s (during the peak of behaviourism) remember, and learn to use knowledge. Piagets theory: over development, the child - It includes many mental processes: perception, acquires qualitatively new ways of thinking and attention, learning, memory, and reasoning understanding the world. - It is a very broad concept o This theory focused on development o It was based on observations of how Research on cognitive development: childrens cognitive abilities change as - Focuses on how and when intellectual abilities they grow from infancy to adolescence and knowledge of the world first emerge in - Behaviourism: children passively wait for childhood information (stimuli) from the environment - How does it change as a person grows older - Constructionist view: children encounter new information and have new experiences, which There are three approaches to the study of cognitive they then ACTIVELY try to fit it in with the development: knowledge they already possess 1. Jean Piagets theory o Children construct their own - It emphasizes developmental changes in the understanding organization or structure of childrens thinking o Understanding of the logical properties process of the world 2. Lev vygotskys sociocultural theory - It suggests that a childs interactions with the According to Piaget, how do children develop social world produce advances in thinking and knowledge (cognition)? understanding 1. Organization: combining simple mental structure into 3. Information-processing approach more complex systems (cognitive structures) - This view concentrates on how people use their - Cognitive structure: not a physical entity in the cognitive abilities to process information and brain, but organized groups of interrelated carry out intelligent actions memories, thoughts, and strategies - the child uses cognitive structures to PIAGETS THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT understand a situation Jean Piaget: - Schema: an organized unit of knowledge that - He was a Swiss scientist the child uses to try to understand a situation - Began his own research at a young age - Childrens developing knowledge is organized - By 10, he published his first scholarly article on - Over time and with experience, this knowledge the rare albino sparrow changes into new and better directions - Used to work in Alfred Binets laboratory: - Ex. organization of babies reflexes Binets team was working on developing the o They are very basic in the beginning and first intelligence test used in very specific ways - Made two important observations: o Over time, ex sucking, it changes as the o Children of the same age tended to get newborn changes sucking techniques the same answers wrong on different objects and eventually learns to EAT more complex!- As children get older, their schemas change 1 The sensorimotor stage: acquiring object concept from being based on PHYSICAL activities, to - The formation of mental representations of those based on MENTAL activities objects and events - Operations: schemas that are based on internal - Using the above mental representations to mental activities develop new behaviours and solve problems - Development of object permanence: the notion 2. Adaptation: The individuals tendency to adjust that entities external to the child (objects or to the environment people) continue to exist, independent of child - A two-way street seeing or interacting with them - Child determines how info fits with existing knowledge, and how existing knowledge may Substage 1: (0-1 month) Basic reflex activity - Ex. infant has involuntary grasping reflex need to change to incorporate new information - Children first try assimilation, if it doesnt work, - Above reflex replaced by voluntary grabbing then they try accommodation - Infants only look at objects directly in front - Assimilation: applying existing schemas to new experiences Substage 2: (1-4 months) primary circular reactions - Infants produce repetitive behaviours that are o Ex. looking-grasping-sucking schema o Child sees NEW object focused on their own body o Child, looks, grasps, sucks - These behaviours begin by chance - Ex. infant accidently bring finger near mouth - Accommodation: modifying existing schemas for a new experience and starts sucking on it. Likes it so keeps doing it - If an object is removed from sight, infant will o Ex. looking-grasping-sucking schema o Child sees BIG object (ball) not look for it
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