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PSYB20 Ch 5.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 - Glial cells: cells that surround and protect Chapter 5 The Childs Growth: Brain, Body, Motor neurons also grow. They provide cells structural Skills, and Sexual maturation support, regulate their nutrients, and repair neural tissue Intro: o Some are responsible for myelination: - There is enormous variation in the RATES at parts of neurons are covered with which children develop layers of myelin - Girls usually develop more rapidly than boys - Neural migration: the movement of neurons - In this chapter: within the brain to their final destination, o We explore the development of the ensuring that all bran areas have a sufficient brain and the way genetic and env work number of neural connections together to determine brain growth and - Synapses: connections b/w neurons function - Synaptogenesis: forming of the synapse o We explore the motor and growth - not all neurons and synapses are necessary patterns that infants and children throughout life follow and the factors that speed or slow down these patters Two processes that reduce the number of neurons and connecting fibres: (free space for new connections, and BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY increase efficiency of transmission) History: 1. Neuronal death: the death of some neurons - BRAIN development was not related to that surround newly formed synaptic BEHAVIOURAL development in history connections among other neurons - The advent of new technology for assessing 2. Synaptic pruning: the brains disposal of the brain growth has helped refine, and even drive axon and dendrites of a neuron that is NOT the developmental theory often stimulated Infants brain development: - Recall: Rapid growth in the prenatal period Sequential development of the brain: - Birth: infants brain weight = of adults brain - The sequence of brain develp. Is orderly - 6 months: infant brain weight = of adults - As the baby proceeds through ODERDED - 2 years: infant brain weight = of adults physical development, consequent parts of the General parts of the brain: brain develop - Cerebrum: composed of 2 connected - Ex. motor reflexes voluntary movement hemisphers vision hearing... - Cerebral cortex: covering layer of human cerebrum (contains 90% of brains cell bodies) Hemispheric Specialization: - we dont know how cells control complicated - hemispheres : the left and right brain parts traits but we do know that specific functions - Corpus callosum: nerve fibres that connect the can be traced to specific regions of the cortex two hemispheres - lots of cross-wiring b/w both sides, if one side is Neurons and Synapses: damaged, the other can take over - Birth: baby has most of its neurons (100-200 - Hemispheric specialization: the differential billions of them) functioning of the two sides of the brain - Neuron proliferation: the rapid multiplication o Ex. left controls speech and lang. Right of neurons in the developing organisms brain controls visual-spatial processing - Studies show that adult brain has capacity to - Lateralization: PROCESS by which each half of regenerate new nerve cells the brain becomes specialised for certain thingsLeft and right brain functions: The brains plasticity: Experience and brain development - Right: processes visual-spatial info, non-speech - Plasticity: the capacity of the brain, particularly sounds (music), perceives faces, processes in its developmental stages, to respond to input emotional info of others from the EXTERNAL environment - Both side damaged subjects have difficulties - Two types of experiences influence brain deve. interpreting emotional meaning of utterences o Experiences such as touch, visual input, - Right brain damaged subjects have difficulties in sounds of language, affectionate producing emotional TONE in their utterences expressions from caregivers, and - Left brain damaged subjects have difficulties nutrition producing linguistic content o Experiences that are unique to the - Detection and production of emotional is individual the particular family, complicated community and culture o Left hemisphere is activated in the - The size, structure and even the biochemistry of expression of emotions associated w/ the brain can be modified by experience approach to external env (joy, interest,
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