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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 1: Definitional and Historical Considerations, and Canada’s Mental Health System Psychopathology: concerned with nature & development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, & feelings WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR? Abnormal behaviour:  statistical infrequency  used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation  when an individual’s IQ is below 70, his/her intellectual functioning is considered sufficiently subnormal to be designated as mental retardation  having great athletic ability is infrequent but few would regard that as abnormal  violation of norms  anti-social behaviour of the psychopath & obsessive-compulsive disorder fits this  criminals and prostitutes violate social norms but aren’t considered abnormal  cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms  personal distress  behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress & torment in the person experiencing it  anxiety disorders and depression suffer greatly  not all forms of distress are abnormal (hunger, pain of childbirth…)  disability or dysfunction  impairment in some important area of life (work or personal relationships) because of abnormality  substance abuse disorders are also defined in part of the social/occupational disability (poor work performance, serious arguments with one’s spouse) created by addiction  phobias can prevent disability (fear of flying may prevent someone from taking a job promotion)  transvestism (cross-dressing for sexual pleasure) currently diagnosed as a mental disorder, if it distresses the person it’s not necessarily a disability  unexpectedness  distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors (person who worries about financial situations) 5 core competencies in order to become a registered psychologist:  interpersonal relationships  assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)  intervention and consultation  research  ethics and standards HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Demonology: an evil being (devil) may dwell within a person and control his/her mind and body (found in the early records of Chinese, Egyptians, Babylonians, and Greeks) Following from the belief that abnormal behaviour was caused by possession, its treatments often involved exorcism- casting out evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture Trepanning: surgical opening in a living skull, was a way of treating conditions such as epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders attributed to demons within the cranium Hippocrates (believed in natural rather than supernatural causes) regarded the brain as the organ of consciousness, of intellectual life and emotion he classified mental disorders into 3 categories: 1. mania 2. melancholia- he prescribed tranquility, sobriety, care in choosing food and drink, and abstinence from sexual activity 3. phrenitis The body was thought to contain 4 humours or fluids (Hippocrates Theory, medical perspective):  Ye
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