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Chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

` Chapter notes Chapter 5- The childs growth: Brain, Body, Motor skills, and sexual maturation Brain Development in Infancy Cerebrum: a mass of tissue that embodies not only attributes particular to humanssuch as speech and self awarenessattributes shared with other vertebrate animalssuch as sensory perception, motor abilities, and memory. It is the connected hemisphere of the brain. Cerebral Cortex: The covering layer of the cerebrum that contains the cells that control specific functions, such as seeing, hearing, moving, and thinking. Contains about 90% of the brains cell bodies. Figure 5-1: Fetal brain development Figure 5-3: The Brains cortex Neurons and Synapses th Most neurons are present in the brain b the 7 month of gestation During the embryonic period, neurons multiply at a very rapid pace in a process called neuron proliferation o About 250,000 new neurons born every minute Adult brain has the capacity to regenerate nerve cells Glial cell: Provide neurons with structural support, regulate their nutrient, and repair neural tissue. o Some glial cells are responsible for the important task of myelination (in which parts of neurons are covered with layers of a fatty membranous wrapping called myelin) o Myelination occurs during the first two years of life, but some continues into adulthood. Figure 5-4: Myelinated Neuron Neural Migration ensures that all parts of the brain are served by a sufficient number of neurons. Absence of sufficient neurons associated with mental disabilities 9ex: dyslexia, schizophrenia) Connections between neurons are known as synapses Synapses allow for increasingly complex communications Synaptogenesis: forming of synapses, begins early in prenatal life When new synapses are formed, some surrounding neurons die in what is called a neuronal death In Synaptic pruning the brain disposes of a neurons axons and dendrites if that particular neuron is not often stimulated. (use it or lose it) Neuronal death and synaptic pruning are to increase the speed efficiency and complexity of transmission between neurons and to allow room for new connections that develop as the child encounters new experiences Figure 5-5: Synaptic connection between two neurons ` Chapter notes Turning points chart (pg. 160-161) Sequential Development of the Brain Orderly sequence to brain development during infancy present Moves from reflexive behaviour to voluntary control of movements Motor area develops rapidly Hemispheric Specialization The left and right hemispheres are connected by a set of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum They are anatomically different and control different functions When one side of the brain suffers damage, the other half may take over some functions Left and Right Brain Functions The left hemisphere of the motor cortex controls simple movement in the right side of the body Right hemisphere controls the bodys left side Lateralization describes the specialization of each hemisphere in specific perceptual and cognitive tasks. The right hemisphere processes visual-spatial information, non=speech sounds like music and the perception of faces Damage to the right side of the brain = difficulty attending to a task requiring visual-spatial perception Right hemisphere = processing emotional information Right-brain damage can have difficulty interpreting facial expressions Left-hemisphere is activated in the expression of emotions associated with approach to the external environment such as joy, interest, and anger Right region activated in emotional expressions that cause the person to turn away or withdraw from that environment (distress, disgust, fear) Left hemisphere associated with language processing (trouble understanding and or speaking clearly themselves) Language that involves motor movement of hands (sign language) = right side of the brain which takes over Brain injury at a young age can recover their losses b/c brain isnt fully developed and hemispheric specialization is not yet complete Consequences of Brain Lateralization Infants whose left hemisphere differentiates among speech sounds and whose right hemisphere differentiates among non-speech sounds exhibit better language skills at age 3 than infants who do not show such strong lateralization Dyslexia: the difficulties some children experience in learning to read o have difficulty integrating visual and auditory information` Chapter notes o ex: matching written letters or words to the sounds of those letters and words o children w/ dyslexia do not show the normal lateralization pattern o they process spatial info on both sides of the brain rather than primarily on the right and thus, their left hemispheres may b/cm overloaded leading to deficits in language skills such as reading Handedness is a/o function that is lateralized Some left-handed people are ambidextrous (able to use both hands) for some tasks o Suggests that their brains may be less clearly lateralized than the brains of right-handed people The Brains Plasticity: Experience and Brain Development Stimulation from the environment plays a role in brain development Brains plasticity is the capacity of the brain (particularly in its developmental stages) to respond and adapt to input from the external environment 2 types of experiences influence the brain development: 1) Experiences such as touch, patterned visual input, sounds of language, affectionate expressions from caregivers, and nutrition a. Triggers synaptic development and pruning and are critical for normal brain development 2) Experiences that are unique to individuals a. Experiences encountered in partic
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