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Chapter 9

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 9 Book Notes

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Zachariah Campbell

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9 Shaping Shaping: is used to develop a target behavior that a person does not currently exhibit Defined as differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until the individual exhibits the target behavior Differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinction Occurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors are not reinforced in a particular situation Thus, the behavior that is reinforced increases and the behaviors that are not reinforced decrease through extinction When shaping is used to develop language, the successive approximations or shaping steps include babbling, word sounds, part words, whole words, string of words, and sentences To start shaping, you identify and existing behavior that is an approximation of the target behavior. This is called the starting behavior, or first approximation You reinforce this behavior causing the individual to exhibit this behavior more often You then stop reinforcing and, as part of the subsequent extinction burst, novel behaviors begin to appear Now you reinforce a novel behavior that is a closer approximation to the target behavior The process of differential reinforcement (reinforcement of a closer approximation and extinction of a previous approximation) continues until the individual exhibits the target behaviors How do dolphins perform tricks? Trainers can shape complex behaviors by starting with natural behaviors that occur often Trainers make the clicking sound each time, they dolphin receive a fish to eat as a reinforce Since the clicking sound is paired with this unconditioned reinforcer, it becomes a conditioned reinforcer Timing is very important. The reinforcer must be deliver at the exact instant that the correct www.notesolution.com
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