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Chapter 13-25

PSYB45 book notes for finals (chapter 13-25)

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Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER 13 UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM BEHAVIOURS THROUGH FUNCTIONAL ASSESSEMENT - Previous chapters talk about how to establish behaviour, this chapter talks about behavioural procedures for identifyingunderstanding problem behaviours and increasingdecreasing existing behaviours. - this is the first step that needs to be taken to change a behaviour. - ex 4 year old who keeps o First, you have to understand why a person engages in that behaviour so you need to have a 3-term contingency to show the antecedent events that evoke the behaviour and the reinforcing consequences that maintain it. o Identifying these variables before treating a problem is called functional assessment - Functional assessment for Jacobs problematic behaviours: o The mother was interviewed and asked her questions about the problem behaviours, the setting and the day care routines, the antecedent circumstances, the consequences when Jacob engaged in the problem behaviours, other behaviours that he engaged in, and previous treatments that she tried with Jacob. o He observed Jacob and recorded info on a B and Cs each time Jacob engaged in the problem behaviours. He observed Jacob until he could determine which antecedents and consequences were reliably associated with the behaviour. Jacob was more likely to engage in the problem behaviours when other children took his toys, and the reinforcer was that the kids would give his toys back (when he banged his head) - Experiment of having kids touch his toys some days and have kids not touch his toys other days showed that he was more likely to engage in that behaviour on days that children played with his toys. This showed that other kids playing with his toys were an antecedent for the problem behaviours and it confirmed the reinforcer for the problem behaviours was that the other kids gave back the toys. - Treatment involved teaching him to ask the other kids to give back his toys when they took them. Asking for the toys is a behaviour that is functionally equivalent to the problematic behaviour so it produced the same outcome as banging his head, which was getting his toys back. When Jacob exhibited aggressive behaviour, he did not get his toys back. TREATMENT HELPED by replacing undesirable behaviour with a desirable one. - Conducting a functional assessment is always the first step in using beh mod procedures to decrease problem behaviours. - Differential reinforcers can also be used to reinforce a behaviour to occur under a certain stimulus. www.notesolution.comDefining Functional Assessment - Behaviour is lawful- wanted and unwanted behaviours are controlled by environmental variables (respondent by antecedent & operant by antecedents and consequences). Its the relationship between the environment and the client. Wecan understand it, measure it, and affect change of the behaviours. - Behaviour is a function of environmental variables - Functional assessment is the process of gathering info about the antecedents and consequences that are functionally related to the occurrence of a bad behaviour o It gives you info about why a problem is occurring o Identifies the discriminative stimulus (something that has stimulus control) o Give info on reinforcing consequences and antecedent stimuli (time and place of behaviour, people present, environmental stimuli before the behaviour and frequency of the target behaviour. o This info on the 3term contingency will help identify the A that has stimulus control over the behaviour and the reinforcing C that maintain the B. -Treatment considerations: It can provide the existence of alternative behavioursehaviour that is mutually exclusive from the problem behaviour, ex replacing kicking behaviour to get a toy with asking nicely for it. You cant engage in both at the same time) that may be functionally equivalent to the bad behaviour motivational variables (establishing operations that influence the effectiveness of stimuli as reinforcers and punishers, operations that can be modified) Other sources of reinforcement- stimuli that may function as reinforcers for the person Outcome of previous interventions: history of previous treatments and their outcomes. - Functional assessment gives info on: o Problem behaviour- an objective description of the behaviours that make up the problem o Antecedents- objective description of environmental events preceding the program behaviour, including aspects of the physical environment and the behaviour of other people o Consequences- an objective description of environmental events that follow the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical environment and the behaviour of other people o Alternative behaviours- info on desirable behaviours in the persons repertoire that may be reinforced to complete with the problem behaviour www.notesolution.com o Motivational variables- info on environmental events that may function as establishing operations to influence the effectiveness of reinforcers and punishers for the problem behaviours and alternative behaviours o Potential reinforcers- info on environmental events- including physical stimuli and the behaviour of other people- that may function as reinforcers and be used in a treatment program o Previous interventions- info on the interventions that have been used in the past and their effects on the problem behaviour -What is the function or reinforcing consequences of problem behaviour? There are four classes of reinforcing consequences 1.) Social Positive Reinforcement- Positive reinforcement is mediated by a third-party- when a positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person after the target behaviour. o Includes: attentionpraisereactions, access to activities, or tangiblesgoodthings provided by another person ex. Anna receives attention from her mom as a reinforcer for her bad behaviour, and Jacob received his toys back from the other kids (tangibles) as a reinforcer for his bad behaviour rd 2.) Social Negative Reinforcement-mediated by a 3 party as well except involves the termination of an aversive stimulus. When another person terminates an aversive event after the occurrence of a target behaviour, the behaviour is said to be maintained by SNR. a. Child who complains to parents gets out of doing a chore as a result of complaining b. Student who bangs her head when instructed to do an academic task may escape from the task as a result. c. Asking a friend not to smoke so you dont have to smell it as a result d. All examples result of escape from the task reinforces the bad behaviour 3.) Automatic Positive Reinforcement- reinforcing consequence occurs as an automatic consequence of the behaviour itself. Not mediated by a third-party and occurs automatically (without human intervention). a. Some behaviours produce sensory stimulation that reinforces the behaviour- playing with a bright toy provides visual stimulation. b. Ex. going to the kitchen to get water is automaticallypositively reinforced by having it (if asking someone else, it is socially positively reinforced) c. Interaction with the non-social environment www.notesolution.com
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