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Chapter 1-12

Chapters 1-12

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Zachariah Campbell

Behaviour Modification - Lecture 2 Notes Chapter 1 Behaviour Modification: the field of psychology concerned with analyzing (measure and understand the behaviour) and modifying (implement principles and procedures to affect the behaviour) human behaviour. Used commonly in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities Characteristics of Behaviour Modification 1. Focuses on behavioural excesses or deficits 2. Based on basic behavioural principles 3. Emphasis on current environmental events - in the current we can be correct with our measurements of behaviour modification. Relying on past memories, leads to faulty results. (antecedents and consequences) wanting to understand a given phenomenon as something that occurs in the present. Behaviour modification is justifiable, scientifically backed and can undergo scrutiny contrary to Freudian theories. If it isnt justifiable, it isnt behaviour modification. ABCs of behaviour = Antecedent proceeding behaviour; Behaviour that does or doesnt take place; Consequences (immediate) 4. Procedures are clearly described 5. Measurement of behaviour change ( immediate and long term) 6. No emphasis on the past 7. Rejection of underlying causes (explanatory fictions and medical model vs. behavioural model) 8. Treatment implemented by people in everyday life Common Misconceptions about Behaviour Modification Relies on punishment Uses bribes Simplistic Ignores the real causes of behaviour, just treats the symptoms Leads to people controlling each other Ruins intrinsic motivation Makes people dependent on external incentives Dehumanizes people Behaviour modification only works with kids and developmentally challenged individuals What is behaviour? www.notesolution.com Behaviour is what people say and do Involves the activity of an organism at any level (muscular, glandular and electrical (neurons)) Behaviour is not static It involves actions and not a label or state e.g. being angry=state; yelling at sibling=activity Refers to the process and not the product Characteristics of Behaviour It can be observed, described and recorded Has impact on environment ( physical and social) Involves physical dimensions Jake the runner Behaviour is lawful functional relationship between the environment and behaviour May be overt (an action that can be observed and recorded) or covert (private events, not observable to others) Dimensions of Behaviour Duration: length of time the behaviour lasts Frequency: number of times the behaviour occurs Intensity: the force at which the behaviour occurs Historical Roots Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936): introduced conditioned reflex, respondent conditioning aka. Classical conditioning Edward Thorndike (1874-1949): introduced the Law of Effect a behaviour that produces a favourable effect on the environment is more likely to be repeated in the future operant conditioning John Watson (1878-1958): Behaviour is controlled by the environment; stimulus response psychology; Father of Behaviourism; Little Albert experiments (instilled fear in subject that was nave to different aspects of the environment; gong would be struck as baby attempted to touch an object). Watson conveyed that fear is taught, not heritable. B.F Skinner(1904-1990): Advanced Behaviourism; Discriminated between Respondant and Operant conditioning; Basic principles of Operant Behaviour; Father of Behaviour Modification Areas of Application Developmental disabilities Mental illness www.notesolution.com Education and Special Education Rehabilitation Community psychology Clinical/counseling psychology Chapter 2 Behavioural Assessment: measurement of target behaviour (or behaviours) in behaviour modification Behavioural Assessment is important because of: Measuring the behaviour before treatment provides info that can help you determine whether treatment is necessary Behavioural assessment can provide information that helps you choose the best treatment Measuring the target behaviour before and after treatment allows you to determine whether the behaviour changed after the treatment was implemented Types of Behavioural Assessment Indirect: interviews, questionnaires and rating scales to obtain info on the target behaviour from the person exhibiting the behaviour or from others Direct: observation and recording in vivo current a person observes and records the target behaviour as it occurs. To observe the target behaviour, the observer must be in close proximity to the person exhibiting Differences: accuracy and objectivity direct is more accurate than indirect. In direct, the observer is trained specifically to observe the target behaviour and record its occurrence immediately. In indirect assessment, information on the target behaviour depends on peoples memories. Most research relies on direct assessment Recording a Behaviour 1. Define the target behaviour - Identify what exactly a person does or says that constitutes a behavioural deficit or excess. 2. Identify who, when, and where to record (the logistics of recording) requires proximity (in person or videotaping). The target behaviour(s) are typically recorded by someone other than the one engaging in the behaviour. The observer must be close to the client to observe the target behaviour. The person must have time and be willing to observe. www.notesolution.com In some cases, the observer is the person exhibiting the target behaviour. When the client records their own behaviour, this is called self-monitoring. Observation period: when the target behaviour is most likely to occur - Indirect assessment is a good starting point Important: Consent must be obtained from the client or clients parent or guardian Observing and recording behaviour can take place in either: Natural settings or Contrived settings Natural settings: Benefit: Most representative sample of target behaviour can be obtained Contrived settings: Benefit: The factors that influence behaviour are easier to manipulate Structured observation: the observer coordinates the occurrence of specific events or activities or occur during the period of observation Unstructured observation: no specific events, activities or instructions are given during the period of observation 3. Choose a recording method (what to record) Continuous Recording: the observer observes the client continuously throughout the observation period and records each occurrence of the behaviour. The observer must be able to identify the onset and offset of each instance of behaviour. Product Recording Interval Recording Time Sample Recording With Continuous Recording, one can measure: Frequency: the # of times the behaviour occurs in an observation period. You measure the frequency of behaviour simply by counting each time it occurs. May be reported as rate, which is frequency divided by the time of the observation period. Duration: the total amount of time occupied by the behaviour from start to finish. You measure the duration of a behaviour by timing it from its onset to offset. Duration may be reported as a % of time, which is duration divided by time of the observation period Intensity (magnitude): is the amount of force, energy or exertion involved in it. Intensity is more difficult to measure than frequency or duration because it doesnt involve simply counting, but by using a measurement instrument or rating scale. Most useful when youre most interested in force or magnitude of the behaviour www.notesolution.com
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