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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 2008

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 13 - Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Escape Conditioning N Definition: Removal of aversive stimuli after response occurs which increases the likelihood of response N Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive stimulus (or punisher). o In escape conditioning, an aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response. o In punishment, the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is punished. N Likelihood of the target response is increased. N Another name for Negative Reinforcement o Strengthens the response leads to the removal (taking away) of an aversive stimulus. N Preparatory training for Avoidance Conditioning N Examples: Escaping the intensity of the light by closing our eyes, Escaping the cold by putting on a sweater, etc. Avoidance Conditioning N A behavior will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. N Differentiation between Escape and Avoidance Conditioning o In Escape Conditioning, there is a removal of an aversive stimulus that has already been presented. o In Avoidance Conditioning, there is the prevention of an aversive stimulus from occurring at all. N Discriminated Avoidance Conditioning o Includes a warning stimulusconditioned aversive stimulus o The aversive stimulus becomes the conditioned punisher after warning. Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning N Undesirable behaviors are strengthened. o Ex: problem behaviors by persons with developmental disabilities frequently enable them to escape teaching situations pleading behavior is strengthened but the undesirable behavior the parent is meant to decrease may have been affected little or none at all. o [7L2L3,O8,54O4JL]L3J.431088L3J9K
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