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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter One What is Behaviour Analysis? 1) What does Behaviour Mean?  Behaviour refers to anything a person does because of internal or external events External and Internal Behaviours:  External/ overt  open to view or observation o Two types:  Verbal  Motor o Verbal Behaviour: use of language o Motor Behaviour: movement of body o Overt behv = main focus of applied behv analysis b/c can be observed and measured directly by a/o person  Internal/ Covert: not viewable/ private o Ex: emotions, physiological changes (↑ <3 rate) What is not behaviour? :  Traits ≠ behv (ex: smart)  Broad characteristics = imprecise o Don’t tell us specifically what we would need to change to improve a person’s behv o More precise we are in describing behv, more successful in measuring and improving that behv  Diagnoses don’t always indicate specific behvs which need to be changed o Therapists make diagnoses on basis of behaviours common to individuals who have the condition  Outcomes of behvs not behaviours o Ex: getting higher grades is an outcome of a behaviour How Behaviour Develops:  Inborn behvs = reflexes o Many reflexes have survival value  Ex: rooting reflex (baby turns head to obj that lightly touches it’s cheek) & sucking reflex (suck any small rounded obj)  All o/ behvs develop after birth & depends on two processes: 1) Heredity 2) Experience  Heredity : affect behv dev in 2 ways: o First, charts course of person’s maturation (physical growth)  Ex: Muscle growth and nervous system  Earliest yrs, growth fastest in head & upper trunk  Maturation determines when motor actions become possible o Second, provides foundation for tendency towards developing behvs of certain types  Inheritance influences behv probs including stuttering, anxieties, autism, alcoholism  Experience: usually dominant factor o Dev of behv occurs through learning 2) How We Acquire and Change Behaviour  Learning= internal process  Applies to wide range of behvs & ppl don’t always display what they have learned  Learning: durable change in behavioural potential as a result of experience Respondent Conditioning (aka classical conditioning):  Ivan Pavlov’s study  salvation of dogs  UR and CR are the same behaviour (salvation) o Called respondent behaviour because they are elicited involuntarily by stimuli o Respondent conditioning: learning process in which a stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response through repeated association with a stimulus that already produces that response.  Unconditioned stimulus(food)  unconditioned response (saliva) o Salvation when food is tasted  Conditioned stimulus (choca)  conditioned response (saliva) o When food present, when not present (ex: hearing the word/seeing pic), and when being tasted Operant Conditioning aka Instrumental conditioning:  Operant conditioning: learning process by which behaviour changes because of its consequences o Behvs operates on the environment thereby producing consequences Consequences in Operant conditioning:  Skinner distinguished b/w behavioural consequences of 2 types: o 1. Reinforcement o 2. Punishment  Reinforcement: strengthens a behv (increases occurrence) o Rewards ($, praise, etc) o IF performance of a behv increases: Reinforcement occurred & consequence was reinforcing  Punishment: decrease/ weakens behv  If performance of a behv decreases: punishment occurred & consequence served as a punisher Antecedents in Operant Conditioning:  Behv influences by consequences following behv & by events and circumstances that precede it. o These cues are called Antecedents b/c they precede and set occasion for your action  A  B  C  Antecedents “sets occasion for” Behaviour “which produces” consequences Relating Respondent (classical) & Operant Conditioning:  Operant & respondent conditioning happen together in real life o Ex: sight of bottle/ breast (CS)  Sucking (CR)  Reinforcing event: milk Modeling:  Modeling: learning a behv by watching someone else perform it  Aggression can be learnt through modelling  Albert Bandura & hitting Bobo doll exp w/ 3 scenarios: aggression modeled receives punishment, reward, or no consequences o All children promised rewards if they would reproduce the aggressive behv o Children performed same number of acts despite consequences viewed o Seeing models punished merely suppresses the performance of that behv  Learn respondent behvs (
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