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Chapter 1

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Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Modification Chapter 1 What does behaviour mean?  Behaviour refers to anything a person does, typically because of internal or external events. External and internal behaviours  Not only are the events internal or external, so are our behaviours  Overt is external, open to view or observation, such as verbal and motor (main focus of applied behaviour analysis)  Filling out a crossword are both verbal and motor components  Covert are internal, not viewable or openly shown, and are sometimes called private events, examples are thinking, emotions, physiological changes to the body  Internal behaviours can only be measured indirectly, through verbal or written report or a device to measure your heart rate What is not behaviour?  Traits or characteristics of a person are not bevaiours  Like to be specific when describing behaviours  Broad characteristics are inconsistent and imprecise (do not specifically tell us what we need to change to improve a persons behaviour)  The more precise we are in describing the behaviour to be changed, the more successful we are likely to be in measuring and improving behaviour  Diagnoses are efficient for communicating, but they can be imprecise, and do not always indicate what specific behaviours need to be changed  Therapists make diagnoses based on the basis of behvaiours that are common to individuals  The outcomes of behaviour are not behaviours (helping someone loose weight or getting marks in school)- misindirecttheir focus toward the outcome rather then the behaviour change needed to reach the outcome How behaviours develop  Babies come into this world with only a few inborn behaviours, they are known as reflexes  Rooting flex, when a baby moves its head towards an object that touches its cheek, and the sucking reflex, when the baby begins to suck when there is a nipple or a finger  Inborn behaviours are inherited  Other behaviours depend on heredity and experience  Heredity affects maturation or physical growth and the foundation toward developing behaviours of a certain type  Experience plays and important role and plays the dominant fator, this role occurs through the process called learning How we acquire and change behaviour?  When we see individuals, we have decided that they learned things when we see changes in their behaviour  Learning is a durable hange in behavioural potential as a result of experience Respondent/classical conditioning  By Ivan Pavlov  He was just studying salivation in dogs digestive processes when he noticed that dogs began to salivate before the food was actually in their mouths  He concluded that the association between the stimulus such as the sight of the food, and the salivary response must have been learned  He proposed that this learned relationship was formed through its association with reflexive or automatic connection between food in the mouth and salivation  The presence of food in ones mouth elicits of produces salivation reflexively without prior conditioning  Food in the mouth is an example of unconditioned stimulus (US), and event that elicits a specific response automatically, and the automatic response to that stimulus is called the automatic response  Because you learned the name-salivation association, the learned stimulus (the foods name) is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) (before conditioning the stimulus was neutral, and the salivation elicited by the name of the food is called a conditioned response (CR), they are called respondent behaviours because they are elicited by involuntary by stimuli  Respondent conditioning is a learning process in which a stimulus (the eventual CS) gains the ability to elicit a response through repeated association with a stimulus (US) that already produces that response Operant Conditioning  Operant conditioning is the learning process by which behavior changes because of its consequences  The responses we acquire through this type of learning are called operant behaviours (operate on the environment and produce consequences) Consequences in Operant Conditioning  B.F Skinner, basic techniques of operant behaviour  He distinguished between two behavioural consequences: reinforcement and punishment  In reinforcement, a consequence following a behavior strengthens that behavior, causing performance of that behavior to increase (also known as a reward)  In punishment, a consequence following a behavior leads to a decrease in performance of that behavior  When people try to apply punishment, they generally use events that they think will work (observe over time to see if the punishment actually worked) Antecedents in Operant Conditioning  The events and circumstances that precede out behavior is called an antecedent, they precede and set the occasion for your action  An important learning task involves discovering cues that help us determine the type of consequence our behavior will bring  process for operant conditioning diagram: A (antecedent)  B (behavior)  C (consequences)  all behaviours we perform produce consequences (ex. You write a word correctly in your notes a
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