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PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 4: Some Areas of Effective Application Parenting and Parent-Child Relationships  Good parental behavioural methods are reinforcement and modeling  Oppositional behaviour refers to acting in a hostile and contrary manner, such as a childs frequent arguing and fighting, ignoring of rules and failing to comply with others requests  Bed wetting is called nocturnal enuresis and is defined at least twice a month after reaching five years of age  Try to use urine alarm apparatus to stop bed wetting, this consists of a liquid sensitive sheet electrically connected to a loud battery powered bell or buzzer, when urine is released the bell awakens the child (uses both operant and respondent conditioning components)  The operant program is another technique that uses the parents to wake up the children periodically during the first week or two to prevent accidents Education  Principles of behaviour change have been applied into educational settings  The use of computers in classroom instruction has its roots in Skinners concept of programmed instruction, a self teaching process in which students actively learn materal presented step by step as a series of discrete items with corrective feedback in textbooks or with technological devices  A more advanced approach of p.i is called computer assisted instruction, uses a computer to coach students through a series of lessons, much as a human tutor might do  Keller applied behavioural principles to develop an alternative approach to teaching students at the college level, called the personalized system of instruction (PSI), sometime called the Keller plan, this divides the course into modules, has the students study independently the modules presented in textbooks and guides, tests students on each unit when they feel ready, and gives immediate feedback on test performance  Using student tutors is an important innovation of the PSI approach  Improving classroom conduct= operant sequence of antecedent, behaviour, and consequence  Teachers nee to watch carefully for antecedents in the classroom that lead to off-task abd disruptive behaviour so that they can try to alter those antecedents  Teachers could also reward or punish children for their behaviour in the classroom Instruction for People with Developmental Disabilities  Developmental disability refers to significant and broad limitation in learning or performing mental, physical or social activities that is evident in childhood and continues throughout life (this term in this book is mainly used for people who were diagnosed with mental retardation or autism)  They both have a difficulty in learning motor, cognitive, language and social skills (these characteristics greatly influence choice of target behaviours and behaviour goals  Define mental retardation on the basis of two main characterisitics: subaverage intellectual functioning and deficiencies in adaptive behaviour (such as literacy, interpersonal skills and personal care)  Mostly classified as retarded based on IQ (intelligent quotient) , based on their performance on the standardized intelligence test (either Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Stanford Binet Intelligence Test)  Different forms: Mild (IQ from 53 to 69, 85% of people with m.r) Moderate (IQ from 38 to 52) Severe (IQ from 22 to 37) and Profound (IQ below 22)  Most serioud levels of retardation come from genetic disorders, prenatal damage or disease  Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by an early onset, sever deficits in social and language behaviours, and excesses in disruptive ad attentive behaviours, its symptoms appear in the child’s first three years and the disorder affects 1 in 750 children and is much more common in boys  Chi
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