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PSYB45H3 (1,081)

Chpt 4.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter four Some Areas of Effective Application 1) Parenting and Parent-Child Relationships:  Dampen situations by speaking calmly to child or aggravate by responding in a coercive/dominating way, which can develop into a coercive pattern and come to characterize family interactions Training in General Parenting Skills:  Reinforcement & modelling effective techniques  Modeling & discussion = useful strategies for teaching parents behv change methods Correcting a child’s Existing Difficulties:  Oppositional behaviour: child acting in a hostile, argumentative, and contrary way o Parent training in behv methods  smiling (reinforcement) when cooperation occurred and isolation in an empty room (punishment) when opposition occurred  effective method o When parents used behv change methods to  disruptive behv at home, kids behaved better in other settings too  Bed-wetting aka. Nocturnal enuresis  urine alarm apparatus with liquid sensitive sheets (alarm= punishment) st  a/o method: parent wakes up child periodically 1 2 weeks (praise if dry, ask to change if not) o combination of both methods possibly more effective than one method alone  Rewards ≠ bribes b/c not illegal & not always material things Education Enhancing Instructional Methods:  Use of comps in classroom has roots in Skinner’s concept of programmed instruction: self- teaching process, learn material step-by-step w/ corrective feedback in textbooks or tech devices  Advanced form of programmed instruction is computer-assisted instruction: coach students through lessons, explain concepts, give examples. As q’s. give feedback, & provide additional explanations  CD-ROM present material in a highly interactive manner  Personalized system of instruction aka. Keller plan: divides course content into modules o Expected to study independently and take test when ready o Gives immediate feedback on performance o Probs: student procrastination  Peer tutoring enhances academic & social skills of both Improving Classroom Conduct:  Watch for antecedents leading to off task behv o After vigorous play time, or in crowded seating patterns off task behv = ↑  Teachers can use consequences o Praise on task behv & give it attention o  disruptive behv by not giving it attention o Give rewards: free-choice activities if on task goals are met Instruction for People with Developmental Disabilities:  Dev disability: limitation in learning or performing mental, physical, or social activities Training People with Mental Retardation:  2 main characteristics of mental retardation: o Subaverage intellectual functioning o Deficiencies in adaptive behv (ex: literacy)  Actual practice, ppl classified as retarded based on IQ (intelligence quotient) & clinical judgement o This is b/c tests of adaptive behvs only recently fully developed o IQ score  Wechsler or Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale o Avg IQ of pop= 100 o 3% of US = mentally retarded o 4 levels: th  1. Mild (IQ= 53-69)  85% of ppl with mental retardation & are educable (6 grade academic lvl)  2. Moderate (IQ=38-52)  10% (2 grade academic lvl)  3. Severe (IQ=22-47)  dependent  4. Profound (IQ=  22)  life-long care & short life spans  Serious lvls  abnorm brain dev due 2 genetic disorders, prenatal damage, diseases  Less serious lvls  no detectable brain damage (e
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