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Chpt 21.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter 21 Respondent Conditioning 1) Respondent conditioning in Everyday Life:  Running away, screaming & crying  reinforcement = escape (negative reinforcer) & comforting from o/ ppl  One prob with escaping & then avoiding dogs = the feared CS persists b/c boy prevents himself experiencing friendly dogs Conditioned Emotional Responses:  Respondent behv of concern in applied behaviour analysis = conditioned emotional response (CER) o CR- mainly emotion o Fear (Anxiety & phobia) o Experience & biology = impt roles in learning CERs Role of Direct and Indirect Experience in CERs:  Can acquire CER through direct or indirect respondent conditioning  Direct when person experiences CS and US  Indirect when observing o/s (modelling) or receiving fearful info  Most ppl experienced negative sitch w/ feared obj (direct) Inborn Processes and CERs:  Evidence for a role of biological processes in dev of CERs  Study of genetics via twin studies o Inborn factors may make some ppl more vulnerable than others to dev fear reactions from their experiences o May lead to being very inhibited that predispose some indiv’s to dev fears Physiological Reactions:  Pavlov’s study shows all physiological reactions can b/cm CRs by way of respondent conditioning  Examples: o Asthma  triggered by pollen (US) but research found people can learn through respondent conditioning to make respiratory reactions & have impaired breathing (CR) to a harmless stimulus which becomes a CS by being paired with the US o Lower back pain  chronic everyday lower back pain o Immune system functioning  Make it seem like respondent conditioning is bad bur isn’t b/c can also operate in opposite directions  asthma and pain sympts Substance Use and Abuse:  Drug use continued via respondent& operant conditioning  With operant conditioning, substance use occurs in two ways: o 1. Positive Reinforcement: taking substance  pleasant mood & positive reinforcement o 2. Negative Reinforcement: withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking the drug  make them take it again to prevent it  With Respondent conditioning, substance use occurs in 2 ways: o 1. Develops CS’s (ex: seeing a cig) which produce internal CRs similar to unconditioned reactions of actually using the drug  Ppl w/ alcoholism see their fav liquor respond w/ strong cravings to drink & ↑ salivation & physiological arousal  Indivs who quit & then encounter associated CSs have a diff time resisting o 2. Body adapts to substance, requiring more to achieve same result  tolerance  Contributes to ↑ substance use b/c addicts associate CSs (ex: room they do drug) w/ physiological reactions (URs) that occur with and protect the body from the ↑ amounts of the substance (USs)  Body acquires tolerance by trying to protect itself w/ physiological reactions that counteract effects of drug  1 respondent method: emetic therapy (used in treating alcohol abuse)  Person take an emetic drug (US) which produces nausea (UR) when alcohol is consumed  After many sessions, drinking alcohol able to elicit nausea w.o drug  Alcohol now CS and nausea CR Cancer Treatment Reactions:  Taste aversion conditioning  associate food with becoming sick & avoid food item  Side effect of chemotherapy = nausea which produces 2 reactions by respondent conditioning: o 1. Learned food aversion  food b/cms distasteful b/c person associates it as a CS with the US of being sick o 2. Anticipatory nausea  drug is the US and nausea is the UR and CR  By association, other related events like seeing the hosp become CSs and can elicit nausea in absence of the drug Learning Positive Reactions:  Conditioning occurs by pairing prev neutral stim w/ a US that already elicits + response (UR)  Advertisers use pleasant imgs (us) that elicit favourable reactions (UR) w. a product which b/cms a CS o Hope the CS will elicit + reaction (CR) 2) Factors and Phenomena in Respondent Conditioning:  Several factors influence the dev of respondent conditioning o 1. How consistently the CS & US were paired o 2. Number of times the CS and US were paired CS-US Timing & Intensity:  Neutral stim and US must occur close enough in time to allow connectio
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