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Chpt 22.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter 22 Changing Respondent Behaviours 1) Extinction and Counter-conditioning Respondent Extinction:  Exposes person to CS without US  Doesn’t erase the memory of original respondent learning  Extinguished CR can reappear, especially if the CS occurs in a context different from the one where extinction was carried out  relapse in a CER  Reappearance of extinguished CR occur in 3 ways: o Spontaneous recovery o Renewal o Reinstatement  If CS and US are presented together after extinction, rapid return of CS o Ex: after overcoming fear of elevators, if neg exp w/ elevator, fear returns Counter Conditioning:  Substitute a competing or incompatible behaviour for the CR when the CS is present  Weakens bond b.w these stimuli and the anxiety  Presents the CS without the US, extinction is part of the process  Other interventions using counter conditioning has person imagine social situations in which a CS occurred 2) Relaxation Techniques  Relaxation: state of calmness with low psychological & physiological tension or arousal  Many techniques, regardless following should be kept in mind: o Setting  comfortable place, seated or reclining o Session length & schedule  set aside regular time  Record data (magnitude of relaxation during sessions) using data sheet  After mastering technique, can develop rapid relaxation induction method that allows them to calm themselves quickly with a set of words, images, & deep breaths Progressive Muscle Relaxation:  Tensing (5-10 secs) & relaxing muscles (20-45 secs)  2 controversial aspects: requirement for tensing & use of audio-recorded scripts Autogenic Training:  Imagine being in a pleasant relaxing place (psychological & physiological effects, self produced) o Body warm or heavy (7 parts of body, e/ focused on for 5 mins)  Req’s to listen to instructions and: o Adopt a passive & relaxed attitude o Allow physiological changes to evolve naturally o Choose peaceful scene Meditation:  Mindful awareness of e/ experience o Mantra, slow down breathing o No intellectual or emotional involvement 3) Systematic Desensitization  To b.cm less responsive to certain stimuli (CS)  e/ CS is presented briefly in a physiological calm state & is desensitized before advancing to a
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