Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)

Chpt 25.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Amanda Uliaszek

Behaviour Analysis: Chapter 25 Token Economies 1) The Token Economy Approach:  Token economy= method that uses complex system of consequence applied with groups of indivs for a wide range of targ behvs  Sometimes token economy & token system used interchangeably, methods differ in 3 ways: o 1. Try to change behvs of many ppl, not just 1 o 2. Attempt to change wide ranges of targ behvs o 3. Use complex systems of conseq’s for those behvs Usual Settings for Token Economies:  Earliest recorded instances in a 19 C prison o Point syst to earn their way out of the penal colony by performing appropriate tasks and social behvs o # points needed depended on seriousness of crime  Applied mainly in organizational/ institutional settings : classroom, hospitals, work setting etc What is needed to Start a Token Economy:  Decide on targ behv intervention will try to change o Depends on types of probs observed, specific needs of indiv group members, & needs of organization o If indivs = similar, targ behvs & rules can apply broadly  common circumstance  Target behvs must be defined carefully & in detail o four tasks should be initiated  1. Functional assessments should be conducted to determine antecedents & conseq’s that seem to be involved in e/ of the behvs  2. Staff members to administer prog must be recruited  3/ staff must receive training in identifying targ behvs, using methods to  antecedents & conseq’s, recording data & administering the token reinforcers  4. Must collect baseline data Setting up and Implementing a Token Economy:  Materials such as tokens, data sheets, behv contracts, backup reinforcers, timing devices must be set up Choosing the Tokens and Backup Consequences:  Many diff types of tokens, even timer tokens  timer 30 mins of tv/ token  Should be diff to steal/counterfeit  Making decisions about which backup reinforcers/ punishers to incld  observe targ persons’ preferences in naturalistic/ structured tests & interviewing them or having them fill out a survey o Preferred items & Experiences questionnaire o Good to have a large variety of reinforcers ↑ effectiveness o Punishment: response cost  pay fines (in tokens) Managing the Consequences:  Keep large supply of tokens and backup reinforcers & device syst to administer conseq’s  Issues need to be decided in advance: o Guidelines for administering tokens o Who will administer conseq’s o How many tokens will a behv earn? o What will the exchange rates be? o How oft will backup reinforcers be available?  Depends on intellectual ability, the lower the ability, the more reinforces should be available o Group or indiv contingencies for administering reinforcers? Phasing Out the Program:  Use natural reinforcers along w/ tokens (praise/feedback)  Later, natural reinforcers can gradually replace tokens even after intervention ends  o/ approaches for maintaining improved behv after an intervention incld thinning & delaying reinforcement. Methods implemented by: o  #of tokens e/ targ behv earns o  #of targ behvs that earn tokens o ↑ #of tokens req to buy backup reinforcers o ↑# delays b/w receiving tokens & having opportunities to redeem them o Assure enviro will encoura
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.