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Chpt 25.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Semester
Winter

Description
Behaviour Analysis: Chapter 25 Token Economies 1) The Token Economy Approach:  Token economy= method that uses complex system of consequence applied with groups of indivs for a wide range of targ behvs  Sometimes token economy & token system used interchangeably, methods differ in 3 ways: o 1. Try to change behvs of many ppl, not just 1 o 2. Attempt to change wide ranges of targ behvs o 3. Use complex systems of conseq’s for those behvs Usual Settings for Token Economies:  Earliest recorded instances in a 19 C prison o Point syst to earn their way out of the penal colony by performing appropriate tasks and social behvs o # points needed depended on seriousness of crime  Applied mainly in organizational/ institutional settings : classroom, hospitals, work setting etc What is needed to Start a Token Economy:  Decide on targ behv intervention will try to change o Depends on types of probs observed, specific needs of indiv group members, & needs of organization o If indivs = similar, targ behvs & rules can apply broadly  common circumstance  Target behvs must be defined carefully & in detail o four tasks should be initiated  1. Functional assessments should be conducted to determine antecedents & conseq’s that seem to be involved in e/ of the behvs  2. Staff members to administer prog must be recruited  3/ staff must receive training in identifying targ behvs, using methods to  antecedents & conseq’s, recording data & administering the token reinforcers  4. Must collect baseline data Setting up and Implementing a Token Economy:  Materials such as tokens, data sheets, behv contracts, backup reinforcers, timing devices must be set up Choosing the Tokens and Backup Consequences:  Many diff types of tokens, even timer tokens  timer 30 mins of tv/ token  Should be diff to steal/counterfeit  Making decisions about which backup reinforcers/ punishers to incld  observe targ persons’ preferences in naturalistic/ structured tests & interviewing them or having them fill out a survey o Preferred items & Experiences questionnaire o Good to have a large variety of reinforcers ↑ effectiveness o Punishment: response cost  pay fines (in tokens) Managing the Consequences:  Keep large supply of tokens and backup reinforcers & device syst to administer conseq’s  Issues need to be decided in advance: o Guidelines for administering tokens o Who will administer conseq’s o How many tokens will a behv earn? o What will the exchange rates be? o How oft will backup reinforcers be available?  Depends on intellectual ability, the lower the ability, the more reinforces should be available o Group or indiv contingencies for administering reinforcers? Phasing Out the Program:  Use natural reinforcers along w/ tokens (praise/feedback)  Later, natural reinforcers can gradually replace tokens even after intervention ends  o/ approaches for maintaining improved behv after an intervention incld thinning & delaying reinforcement. Methods implemented by: o  #of tokens e/ targ behv earns o  #of targ behvs that earn tokens o ↑ #of tokens req to buy backup reinforcers o ↑# delays b/w receiving tokens & having opportunities to redeem them o Assure enviro will encoura
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