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Chapter 4

Behaviour and Modification - Chapter 4.doc

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Amanda Uliaszek

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BEHAVIOUR AND MODIFICATION Chapter 4: Some Areas of Effective Application Parenting and Parent – Child Relationships Training in General Parenting Skills  parents who learn beh methods = lets them deal with a variety of child rearing concerns  modelling and discussion = useful strategies for teaching parents beh change methods to improve their child rearing practices  training 4 weeks – four 2 hour sessions each week - watching and discussing short, videotaped vignettes of parents model who portrayed positive or neg social beh toward children = improvement in mother child social interaction and in child's beh CorrectingAChild's Existing Difficulties  ex of problems where parent training is effective = children's oppositional beh and bed wetting  oppositional behaviour: refers to acting in a hostile and contrary manner (like frequent arguing and fighting.. ignoring rules and failing to comply with others request)  trained one mother to respond enthusiastically and with a smile (reinforcement) when Eddie was cooperative and to isolate him in an empty room (punishment) for a few min each time he showed oppositional beh - after some sessions his beh = x5 cooperative responses > oppositional ones  tech = broad and durable - beh better in other settings - can last years  bed wetting aka nocturnal enuresis – wetting bed at least twice a month after reaching 5 years - failure to learn the response of awakening to the antecedent , bladder tension - urine alarm apparatus: liquid sensitive sheet electrically connection to a loud battery powered bell – when urine is there bell rings and the child awakes = both operant and respondent conditioning – 75% = stop wetting bed within a few months - program of operant conditioning tech – child active participant with parents o process – parents wake child from sleep periodically during first week or two to prevent accidents – when awoken , provide praise if the bed is dry and encouragement to use toilet at that time – if wet = make sure child remakes the bed  combining operant methods and urine alarm = more successful than any of them alone Educating Enhancing Instructional Methods  programmed instruction: use of comp in classroom – roots in Skinner - self teaching process where students actively learn material presented step by step as a series of discrete items with corrective feedback in textbook or with technological devices  computer assisted instruction CAI: more advanced form of programmed instruction - uses comp to coach students through a series of lessons – like a human tutor - explains concepts, gives ex, ask questions, give feedback and give explanation if needed - affective esp when computerized training requires students to be highly active participants  personalized system of instruction PSI: Fred Keller – alternative approach to teaching students at college level - aka Keller Plan – divvies course content into units (modules) – students study independently modules presented in textbooks and guides – test when they feel ready and give immediate feedback on test performance - student must master each module - advanced students (proctors) give tutoring and stuff - peer tutoring is way to give extra help to specific students, individualize the focus of instruction and enhance the academic and social skills of both and tutee and tutor Improving Classroom Conduct  on task beh = paying attention and not being disruptive  two antecedent conditions: amount of activity children showed in periods before the activities and degree of crowding in seating arrangement during activities  on task beh = lower when activities follows a vigorous play period rather than a rest period when seating during activities was crowded rather than uncrowded  sometimes hard to see antecedents  one consequence: social attention to students ( praising the on task beh and ignore the bad beh) - can also use rewards for free choice activities when meet goals  teachers with beh method = more reinforcement and less punishment – students = gain in academic achievement  students who have conduct prob participant in conduct program = continue in school longer Instruction for People With Developmental Disabilities  developmental disability: significant and broad limitation in learning or performing mental, physical or social activities that is evidence in childhood and continues throughout life - mental retardation or autism (difficulty learning all skills like motor cog lang and social – influence choice of target beh and beh goals – these ppl need highly structured and well planned training to learn even simple tasks Training People With Mental Retardation  American association on intellectual and developmental disabilities and the american psychiatric association define mental retardation on the basis of two characteristics: subaverage intellectual functioning and deficiencies in adaptive beh (like literacy, interpersonal skills and personal care) - usually retarded based on IQ ( from Wechlsler intelligence scale or stanford Binet intelligence scale) - average score is 100  3% of US ppl have mental retardation  3 levels of mental retardation: - mild (IQ 53-69): 85% of ppl – aka educable because they can benefit from special edu programs and are usually able to function at a 6 grade academic level in adult
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