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Chapter 26

Behaviour and Modification - Chapter 26.doc

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Amanda Uliaszek

BEHAVIOUR AND MODIFICATION Chapter 26: Rule Governed and Verbal Behaviour Rule Governed Behaviour  rule: verbal statement of a contingency that involves an antecedent, a behaviour, and a consequence - certain consequence is likely when an individual performs a particular beh under a specific antecedent condition  ex of a rule - it is two days before the test – if i dont start reading the assignment ill fail – this rule describes punishment as the consequence of not reading and a good way to avoid the event (by reading)  rules efficient in 2 ways - respond in accordance with specified contingencies about unpleasant consequences and avoid actually experiencing the unpleasantness - they can react appropriately to sit even though they never experienced the threatening consequence  rule governed beh: an action that carries out or is controlled by a prescription given in a stated rule How Rule Governs Behaviour  usually rule is a discriminative stimulus and serves as an antecedent : thinking of or being told the rule sets the occasion for performing the prescribed behaviour  rule is learned bc it specifies the beh, consequence it states is confirmed and following the rule is reinforced by positive reinforcement or neg reinforcement (ex avoid being burned )  failing to follow rule usually = punishment  following rule can reduce aversive emotion – neg punishment WhenAre Rules Especially Useful?  One circumstance when rules are very useful is when they are formalized in beh contract in self management program  contract states the rule in writing  rules useful when - target beh consequences will be delayed: if do not clean every week then cannot watch show – knowing this would help bridge the delay - natural reinforcers for the target beh dont occur often enough: ex keeping store attractive and well stocked will bring customers and some of them are likely to buy” can bridge the delay and maintain motivation - rapid beh change is highly desirable: esp when performing an undesirable beh can lead to severe punishment or injury and if overcoming a beh deficit can yield reinforcers that are highly desirable  rules more likely to lead to desired beh if they are stated clearly - should describe antecedents, beh and consequences specifically  reinforcers should be highly desirable and punishers should be undesirable  ppl need good verbal skills to use rules Verbal Behaviour  verbal: of, relating or consisting of words  verbal beh: action that uses language and results in a consequence – verbal beh receives reinforcement is strengthened or maintained - can be vocal (spoken) or nonvocal  in social interaction, verbal beh involves a speaker, or communicator and a listener or recipient - speaker = vocal or nonvocal and listener reacts with a consequence Types of Verbal Behaviour  skinner identified 6 types of verbal beh – ex mands and tacts - others are.. - echoic - repeating or copying with point to point correspondence the words presented vocally or non-vocally -
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