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Chapter 1

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Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 1: What is Applied Behaviour Analysis? What Does Behaviour Mean? External and Internal Behaviours - Behaviour – anything a person does because of internal/external events - external/overt – can be observed/measured directly by another person (the main focus of b mod) - verbal behaviour – actions that involve the use of language (e.g. answering a question) - motor behaviour – actions that involve body movement w/out use of language (e.g. swinging a bat) - filling out a crossword require both motor and verbal components - internal/covert – observed/felt only by the person who is performing the behaviour - physiological changes such as increased heart rates - e.g. you see an ad about Lakers, and you think about a game you went to (thinking about the game is the response to the ad which is not viewable) What is Not Behaviour? - traits - we focus on broad characteristics to describe a person’s behaviour because they provide a convenient way of communicating a lot of information - adjectives are not behaviours - broad characteristics are misleading, inconsistent and imprecise as they don’t tell us specifically what we would need to change to improve a person’s behaviour - diagnoses are used to classify clients as they are efficient for communicating, but imprecise as they don’t indicate what specific behaviours have to be changed - outcomes of behaviour are not behaviours (e.g. getting better grades -> not specific enough, behaviours might be something like spending more time reading) How Behaviour Develops - babies are only born with reflexes, the 2 important ones being rooting reflex (baby turns its head toward an object that lightly touches its cheek) and sucking reflex - the babies development depends on 2 processes: heredity and experience - heredity affects behavioural development through maturation (or physical growth of muscles) and provide the foundation for developing behaviours of certain types - experience is the most dominant factor in developing all human behaviours through learning - heredity and experience affect behaviour development How We Acquire and Change Behaviour - Learning – a durable change in behavioural potential as a result of experience Respondent Conditioning - Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – an event that elicits a specific response automatically (e.g. food in mouth -> the taste of something, bottle or breast for milk) - Unconditioned Response (UR) – the automatic response to a stimulus (e.g. salivation to the name of a food such as chocolate, sucking on a nipple that provided milk) - aka Conditioned Response - CR and UR are called respondent behaviours since they are elicited unwillingly by stimuli 1 - Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – the learned stimulus, as it was neutral before (e.g. the food’s name) - Respondent Conditioning - a learning process in which stimulus (CS) gains the ability to elicit a response (CR) through repeated association with a stimulus (US) that already produces the response Operant Conditioning - Operant Conditioning – the learning process by which behaviour changes because of its consequences (e.g. a person who says plural words constantly as a the friend’s behaviour is mhm which affects the consequence of her behaviour) - the responses they acquire through this type of learning is called operant behaviours Consequences in Operant Conditioning - Reinforcement – a consequence following a behaviour that strengthens the behaviour, causing performance of the behaviour to increase - consequence of the reinforcement is an reward (e.g. praise, money or candy) - Punishment – a consequence following a behaviour leads to a decrease in performance of that behaviour - consequence in which the person does not want Antecedents in Operant Conditioning - Antecedents – cues that precede and set the occasion for our action (e.g. when we enter a room, if its dark we turn on the light -> reinforcement to see where we’re going, or punishment -> too dark as we bump into something) - antecedents -> behaviour -> consequence Modelling - Modelling – learning behaviour by watching someone else perform it (e.g. watch father tie shoelace and you try to copy his movements) - efficient way to acquire and change a behaviour - the bobo doll experiment where the children mimicked the adult’s violent behaviour towards the doll - fear can also be learned as children mimic what’s on tv (e.g. children showed fear of Mickey Mouse on tv and joy of Donald Duck, in reality they would have a pref of Donald Duck ove
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