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Chapter 5

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Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 5 Reinforcement Positive and Negative NaelaS In operant conditioning reinforcement refers to process in which consequence of behaviour strengthens tht behaviour thus making it more likely to occurconsequence is contingent consequence occurs in behaviour occurs reinforcer objectevent that serves as a consequence in reinforcement stimulus introduced or changed when behaviour occursreinforcer is something the person wants or finds pleasant rewardless precise term think of its as an obvious event such as prizeNaturalProgrammed Reinforcementnatural reinforcers unprogrammed rewards ppl receive as natural part of their everyday livesexamples of natural reinforcers eg smiling at someone lead to conversation therefore increase the behaviour in the future eg telling a joke is reinforced by the enjoyment other ppl express thus youll increase behavioureg eating food reinforced by the good tastehunger reduction automatic reinforcement a behaviour produces a reinforcement directly without the need of other ppl eg scratching an itch programmed reinforcers rewards that are deliberately applied with intention of strengthening specific behaviourseg high grades for good school work employers use to promote worker safetyPositiveNegative Reinforcement positive reinforcement process in which addingintroducing an item or experience as a consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviour positive reinforcer itemexperience thats added or introduced as consequence of behaviourstrengthens tht actioneg praisesnacks Bobs mom gave him for doing hwnegative reinforcementa process in which decreasing or removing an aversive stimulus asa consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviourbehaviours that receive negative reinforcement drinking alcohol to reduce unpleasant feelings taking pill to reduce pain eating food to reduce feelings of hunger UnconditionedConditioned Reinforcement unconditioned reinforcers primary reinforcers function as reinforcers as result of inborn processes never had to learn iteg Unconditioned reinforcers include food water warmth when the person is respectively hungry thirsty cold conditioned reinforcer secondary reinforcer stimuli tht did not have ability to strengthen behaviour until became reinforcing as result of learning something positive that comes from them eg Conditioned reinforcers include praise TV shows games moneyTypes of Positive Reinforcement1 Tangible and Consumable Reinforcers tangiblematerial objects as reinforcers toys clothing money consumable things we can eat or drink candy popbut why is food NOT often used in interventions
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