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Chapter 6

Behaviour and Modification - Chapter 6 .odt

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Amanda Uliaszek

BEHAVIOUR AND MODIFICATION_______________________________________________ ble___ Chapter 6: Extinction What is Operant Extinction? • Extinction: when discussing operant beh -> two meanings - procedure or condition where a previously reinforced response no longer receives reinforcement and it is a process where the rate and force is performing the no longer reinforced response decrease • to start extinction procedure for a target beh, must identify what the reinforcement is and be able to control its source - if dont control source of reinforcement carefully -> extraneous reinforcers may occur and reinstate the beh • extinction can apply to beh that received positive or neg reinforcement – both cases reinforcement is terminated and beh declines Extinction for Positive Reinforcement • if consequence of beh = + , the extinction procedure involves making sure those reards are no longer provided Extinction for Negative Reinforcement • if neg reinforcement – the extinction procedure involves preventing the person from escaping or avoiding the unpleasant sit • ex doing tantrums to get out of school -> must be not allowed to escape or avoid school The Process and Characteristics of Extinction Extinction Burst andAggression • vending machine ex shows two phenomena of extinction - when reinforcement fails to occur, the response often increases temporarily in its freq and magnitude = extinction burst – may result from frustration • beh in extinction may not always show a burst but when it does, ppl who want to change the beh but dont expect a burst may think that extinction does not work • other phenomenon the vending ex showed was aggression - extinction increases target person's aggression and other emo beh - ways to curb problems are to instruct person of new contingencies in advance and to combine extinction with other methods like reinforcement for other actions • using extinction, reinforce 2 types of actions: - competing response: action that is incompatible or interferes witht performance of a target beh – ex folding arms = cant flap hands for autistic children - alternative beh: dissimilar to and can take the place of target beh as a desirable act but the two actions arent necessarily incompatibility and could occur tgthr – ex raising hand to answer question rather than screaming - any strong reinforcer can strengthen an alternative beh Gradual Decline and Reappearance of the behaviour • extinction has two other characteristics - beh tends to decline gradually or irregularly rather than immediately and smoothly - extinguished beh can reappear temporarily, even though reinforcement is not give for the beh • reappearance of an operant beh can occur in more than one way - spontaneous recovery: main factor seems to be the passage of time between periods of extinction – two conditions can lead to spontaneous recovery • two conditions are.. - placing another beh on extinction can cause a perviously extinguished response to recur - spontaneous recovery may happen bc antecedents that were present when the beh had been reinforced in the past are present again • when an extinguished response recovers without being reinforced, its strength (freq duration or mag) usually is weaker than it was before extinction
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