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Chapter 22

PSYB45H3 Chapter 22: PSYB45 Chapter 22
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello PSYB45 Chapter 22: Doing Behaviour Modification Research  Recall from ch.20 that a minimal behaviour modification program has 4 phases o Screening o Assessment/baseline o Treatment o Follow-up  Many behaviour modification projects go beyond these phases and demonstrate convincingly that it was indeed the treatment that caused a particular change in behaviour The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design  Dependent variable: The measure of behaviour  Independent variable: The treatment or the intervention  Two considerations in evaluating a possible cause-effect relationship: o Internal validity: Study/experiment convincingly demonstrates that the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable o External validity: The finding in a study/experiment can be generalized to other behaviours, individuals, settings, or treatments  Reversal-replication design: (aka. ABAB design) An experimental design consisting of a baseline phase followed by a treatment phase, followed by a reversal back to baseline conditions, and followed by a replication of the treatment phase o The baseline is often represented as A and the treatment as B o Has also been called a withdrawal design because the treatment is withdrawn during the second baseline phase o A baseline phase should continue until the pattern of performance is stable or until it shows a trend in the direction opposite to that predicted when the independent variable is introduced  Other considerations might lead to shortening or lengthening a baseline in an applied research project o Scientific considerations related to the newness of the independent and dependent variables should be reviewed o Practical considerations might limit the length of baseline observations o Ethical considerations often affect baseline length  Limitations that make reversal-replication design inappropriate in certain situations PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello o It might be undesirable to reverse to baseline conditions following a treatment phase o It might be impossible to obtain a reversal due to behaviour trapping Multiple-Baseline Designs  These are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a particular treatment without reversing to baseline conditions  Multiple-baseline-across-behaviours design: Involves establishing baselines for two or more of an individual’s behaviours followed by introducing the treatment sequentially across those behaviours o Limitations  Behaviours might not be independent  It might not be possible to find two or more suitable behaviours or sufficient observers to gather the necessary data on several behaviours  If the procedure is used with only one individual, we can conclude only that the treatment was internally valid with that individual o We must be cautious in extrapolating the results to other individuals  Multiple-baseline-across-situations design: Involves establishing baselines for behaviour of an individual across two or more situations concurrently followed by the introduction of the treatment to the behaviour sequentially across those situations o Limitations  When the treatment is applied to the behaviour in the first situation, it might cause subsequent improvement in all situations  Researcher isn’t able to conclude that the improvement was necessarily the result of the treatment  The behaviour might occur in only one situation, or there might not be sufficient observers to gather the necessary data  If the procedure is used with only one individual, we can conclude only that the treatment is effective with that individual o We must be cautious in extrapolating the result to other individuals  Multiple-baseline-across-people design: Involves establishing baselines for a specific behaviour across two or more people concurrently followed by the introduction of the treatment sequentially to each person o Limitations  The first individual might explain the treatment or model the desirable behaviour to the other individuals, causing them to improve in the absence of treatment PSYB45: Behaviour Modification Clara Rebello  It’s not always possible to find either two or more individuals with the same problem or the additional observers necessary to gather the data The Changing-Criterion Design  Changing-criterion design: A research design in which the control that a treatment exerts on an individual’s behaviour is evaluated by introducing sequential changes in the behavioural criterion for reinforcement
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